An Estimate of Protective Immunity against SARS-CoV2: Comparison of Different Vaccine Types


  • Waseem Iqbal Department of Pathology, Mardan Medical Complex Teaching Hospital, Mardan, Pakistan
  • Ikram Ullah Department of Medical Lab Technology, The University of Haripur, Haripur, Pakistan
  • Uroosa Irum Department of Microbiology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan
  • Saima Siddiqi Department of Rare and Infectious Disease, Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Khalid Mahmood Khan Professor Emeritus, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad



SARS-COV2, Vaccine Effectiveness, COVID-19 Vaccine Types, Ct Value


Several types of vaccines have been approved to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Few studies are conducted on the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines. Vaccination is important to eliminate and fight SARS-CoV-2 infection and several vaccines have been approved. This study aimed to assess the incidence density of COVID-19 infection among the community, estimate the effectiveness of different types of vaccines (inactivated virus, viral vector or mRNA) and efficiency of incomplete and complete vaccination. In this observational cross-sectional study, a total of 4924 specimens were received from 1st January 2022 to 2nd February 2022 for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The patient’s age, gender, and vaccination data were recorded and S, N, and ORF 1ab genes were amplified after RNA extraction through PCR. out of which 1034 (20.99%) cases were positive. Among 1034 (20.99%) positive cases, 418 and 616 patients were vaccinated and non-vaccinated respectively. The cases of SARS-CoV-2 in vaccinated patients were categorized into a sudden infection (≤ 10 days) and late infection (≥10 days) after the incomplete and complete dose of vaccination. Vaccination provides partial protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. This might be due to the low efficacy and inability to detect recent variations in the protein structure of the virus.


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How to Cite

Waseem Iqbal, Ikram Ullah, Uroosa Irum, Saima Siddiqi, & Khalid Mahmood Khan. (2023). An Estimate of Protective Immunity against SARS-CoV2: Comparison of Different Vaccine Types. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: B. Life and Environmental Sciences, 60(3), 377–382.



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