Amending Soil with Rhizobium carrying Biochar Ameliorates Drought Stress on Phaseolus vulgaris

Drought Stress Amelioration in Phaseolus using Biochar

Authors

  • Aniqa Batool Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Pir Mehr Ali Shah-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi
  • Audil Rashid Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Pir Mehr Ali Shah-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi
  • Irfan Aziz Department of Agronomy, Pir Mehr Ali Shah-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.53560/PPASB(60-3)882

Keywords:

Biochar, Phaseolus vulgaris, Rhizobium carrier, drought, arid climate

Abstract

As a consequence of climate change/global warming earth’s agriculture output is under rigorous stress. There is a growing need to develop strategies to cope with these abiotic stresses. Biochar exhibiting many beneficial qualities appeared to alleviate these problems by improving soil fertility by adding carbon and preventing nutrient losses etc. Biochar can also enhance BNF and could be used as a carrier for rhizobium by providing a suitable microenvironment. The current study is aimed to find the ameliorative potential of different biochar types to be used as rhizobium carriers for Phaseolus vulgaris L. exposed to drought stress. Both types of biochar were analyzed for physico-chemical and morphological parameters. Presence of Silicon content remains the key finding for rice husk biochar which was absent in Lantana biochar. Increased C, K, and Ca weight percentages were found in Lantana biochar as compared to their proportions for rice husk biochar. On the contrary, the oxygen content was higher in rice husk biochar as compared to that in Lantana. Phaseolus seeds were used for the pot experiment where stress treatment was applied by FTSW (Fractionable Transpirable Soil Water) technique. One isolated strain along with two types of biochar carrier was applied to the plants in combination with water stress treatment. Plants were analyzed for growth and physiological parameters including plant height, leaf area, biomass, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency, where rice husk biochar responded better than the one obtained from Lantana. Plants responded positively for all the growth as well as physiological parameters when treated in combination with the inoculum for both stress levels i.e., 100% and 60% field capacity F.C. The present study advocates rice husk biochar for its ability to enhance tolerance in Phaseolus against drought stress through its role as an inoculum carrier contributing suitable habitat for the microorganism.

References

M. Diop, N. Chirinda, A. Beniaich, M. El Gharous, and K. El Mejahed. Soil and water conservation in Africa: State of play and potential role in tackling soil degradation and building soil health in agricultural lands. Sustainability 14(20): 13425 (2022).

P. Manning, F. Van der Plas, S. Soliveres, E. Allan, F.T. Maestre, G. Mace, and M. Fischer. Redefining ecosystem multifunctionality. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2(3): 427-436 (2018).

J. Iqbal, H. Ronggui, D. Lijun, L. Lan, L. Shan, C. Tao, and R. Leilei. Differences in soil CO2 flux between different land use types in mid-subtropical China. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40(9): 2324-2333 (2008).

S. Fahad, M. Hasanuzzaman, M. Alam, H. Ullah, M. Saeed, I.A. Khan, and M. Adnan. (Eds.). Environment, climate, plant and vegetation growth. Springer International Publishing (2020).

S. Wilkinson, and W.J. Davies. Drought, ozone, ABA and ethylene: new insights from cell to plant to community. Plant, Cell and Environment 33(4): 510-525 (2010).

M.M. Vaughan, A. Block, S.A. Christensen, L.H. Allen, and E.A. Schmelz. The effects of climate change associated abiotic stresses on maize phytochemical defenses. Phytochemistry Reviews 17(1): 37-49 (2018).

S. Fahad, A.A. Bajwa, U. Nazir, S.A. Anjum, A. Farooq, A. Zohaib, S. Sadia, W. Nasim, S. Adkins, S. Saud, M.Z. Ihsan, H. Alharby, C. Wu, D. Wang, and J. Huang. Crop production under drought and heat stress: plant responses and management options. Frontiers in Plant Science 1147 (2017).

J.D. Lewis, N.G. Phillips, B.A. Logan, C.R. Hricko, and D.T. Tissue. Leaf photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance in six Eucalyptus species native to mesic and xeric environments growing in a common garden. Tree Physiology 31(9): 997-1006 (2011).

A. Merchant, M. Tausz, S.K. Arndt, and M.A. Adams. Cyclitols and carbohydrates in leaves and roots of 13 Eucalyptus species suggest contrasting physiological responses to water deficit. Plant, Cell and Environment 29(11): 2017-2019 (2006).

A. Sharma, B. Shahzad, A. Rehman, R. Bhardwaj, M. Landi, and B. Zheng. Response of phenylpropanoid pathway and the role of polyphenols in plants under abiotic stress. Molecules 24(13): 2452 (2019).

C. Pucciariello, A. Boscari, A. Tagliani, R. Brouquisse, and P. Perata. Exploring legume-rhizobia symbiotic models for waterlogging tolerance. Frontiers in Plant Science 10: 578 (2019).

J.L. Wilker, A. Navabi, I. Rajcan, F. Marsolais, B. Hill, D. Torkamaneh, and K.P. Pauls. Agronomic performance and nitrogen fixation of heirloom and conventional dry bean varieties under low-nitrogen field conditions. Frontiers in Plant Science 10: 952 (2019).

J.W. Gaskin, C. Steiner, K. Harris, K.C. Das, and B. Bibens. Effect of low-temperature pyrolysis conditions on biochar for agricultural use. Transactions of the ASABE 51(6): 2061-2069 (2008).

J.M. Novak, W.J. Busscher, D.L. Laird, M. Ahmedna, D.W. Watts, and M.A. Niandou. Impact of biochar amendment on fertility of a southeastern coastal plain soil. Soil Science 174(2): 105-112 (2009).

Y. Yao, B. Gao, M. Inyang, A.R. Zimmerman, X. Cao, P. Pullammanappallil, and L. Yang. Biochar derived from anaerobically digested sugar beet tailings: characterization and phosphate removal potential. Bioresource Technology 102(10): 6273-6278 (2011).

M. Rashid, H. Qaiser, S.K. Khalid, I. Mohammad, Al-Wabel, A. Zhang, A. Muhammad, S.I. Shahzada, A. Rukhsanda, A.S. Ghulam, M.M. Shahzada, A. Sarosh, and F.Q. Muhammad. Prospects of biochar in alkaline soils to mitigate climate change. In Environment, climate, plant and vegetation growth. Springer, Cham, p. 133-149 (2020).

S. Saud, S. Fahad, G. Cui, Y. Chen, and S. Anwar. Determining nitrogen isotopes discrimination under drought stress on enzymatic activities, nitrogen isotope abundance and water contents of Kentucky bluegrass. Scientific Reports 10(1): 1-16 (2020).

M. Yamato, Y. Okimori, I.F. Wibowo, S. Anshori, and M. Ogawa. Effects of the application of charred bark of Acacia mangium on the yield of maize, cowpea and peanut, and soil chemical properties in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 52(4): 489-495 (2006).

M.A. Rondon, J. Lehmann, J. Ramírez, and M. Hurtado. Biological nitrogen fixation by common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) increases with bio-char additions. Biology and Fertility of Soils 43(6): 699-708 (2007).

M. Calvache, K. Reichardt, O.O.S. Bacchi, and D. Dourado-Neto. Deficit irrigation at different growth stages of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Imbabello). Scientia agricola 54: 1-16 (1997).

P. Goebes, K. Schmidt, S. Seitz, S. Both, H. Bruelheide, A. Erfmeier, and P. Kühn. The strength of soil-plant interactions under forest is related to a Critical Soil Depth. Scientific Reports 9(1): 1-12 (2019).

M. Hungria, and A.A. Franco. Effects of high temperature on nodulation and nitrogen fixation by Phaseolus vulgaris L. Plant and Soil 149(1): 95-102 (1993).

A.C. Sánchez, R.T. Gutiérrez, R.C. Santana, A.R. Urrutia, M. Fauvart, J. Michiels, and J. Vanderleyden. Effects of co-inoculation of native Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains on growth parameters and yield of two contrasting Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes under Cuban soil conditions. European Journal of Soil Biology 62: 105-112 (2014).

D.H. Bergey, and J.G. Holt. Staley and Stanley Thomas Williams. Bergey's Manual of Determinate Bacteriology (1994).

S. Sobti, H.A. Belhadj, and A. Djaghoubi. Isolation and characterization of the native Rhizobia under hyper-salt edaphic conditions in Ouargla (southeast Algeria). Energy Procedia 74: 1434-1439 (2015).

G. Koskey, S.W. Mburu, J.M. Kimiti, O. Ombori, J.M. Maingi, and E.M. Njeru. Genetic characterization and diversity of Rhizobium isolated from root nodules of mid-altitude climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties. Frontiers in Microbiology 9: 968 (2018).

A. Batool, S. Taj, A. Rashid, A. Khalid, S. Qadeer, A.R. Saleem, M.A. Ghufran. Potential of soil amendments (Biochar and Gypsum) in increasing water use efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench. Frontiers in Plant Science 6: 733 (2015).

S. Qadeer, A. Batool, A. Rashid, A. Khalid, N. Samad, and M.A. Ghufran. Effectiveness of biochar in soil conditioning under simulated ecological conditions. Soil and Environment 33(2): (2014).

P. Basu. Biomass gasification, pyrolysis and torrefaction: practical design and theory. Academic press, (2018).

G. Stella Mary, P. Sugumaran, S. Niveditha, B. Ramalakshmi, P. Ravichandran, and S. Seshadri. Production, characterization and evaluation of biochar from pod (Pisum sativum), leaf (Brassica oleracea) and peel (Citrus sinensis) wastes. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture 5(1): 43-53 (2016).

E.R. Graber, Y. Meller Harel, M. Kolton, E. Cytryn, A. Silber, D. Rav David, L. Tsechansky, M. Borenshtein, and Y. Elad. Biochar impact on development and productivity of pepper and tomato grown in fertigated soilless media. Plant and Soil 337(1): 481-496 (2010).

G. Estefan. Methods of soil, plant, and water analysis: A manual for the West Asia and North Africa region (2013).

O. Varela Milla, E.B. Rivera, W.J. Huang, C.C. Chien, and Y.M. Wang. Agronomic properties and characterization of rice husk and wood biochars and their effect on the growth of water spinach in a field test. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 13(2): 251-266 (2013).

J. Varley. A Textbook of Soil Chemical Analysis. PR Hesse London: John Murray, p. 520 (1971).

B.H. Sheldrick, and C. Wang. Soil sampling and methods of analysis. CRC press (2007).

D.W. Nelson, and L.E. Sommers. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. Methods of soil analysis: Part 2 chemical and microbiological properties, 9: 539-579 (1983).

R.J. Kremer, and H.J. Peterson. Effects of carrier and temperature on survival of Rhizobium spp. in legume inocula: development of an improved type of inoculant. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 45(6): 1790-1794 (1983).

L. Hale, M. Luth, and D. Crowley. Biochar characteristics relate to its utility as an alternative soil inoculum carrier to peat and vermiculite. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 81: 228-235 (2015).

S. Tao, Z. Wu, X. He, B.C. Ye, and C. Li. Characterization of biochar prepared from cotton stalks as efficient inoculum carriers for Bacillus subtilis SL-13. Bioresources 13(1): 1773-1786 (2018).

B. Sankar, C.A. Jaleel, P. Manivannan, A. Kishorekumar, R. Somasundaram, and R. Panneerselvam. Relative efficacy of water use in five varieties of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. under water-limited conditions. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 62(1): 125-129 (2008).

P.W. Masinde, H. Stützel, S.G. Agong, and A. Fricke. Plant growth, water relations and transpiration of two species of African nightshade (Solanum villosum Mill. ssp. miniatum (Bernh. ex Willd.) Edmonds and S. sarrachoides Sendtn.) under water-limited conditions. Scientia Horticulturae 110: 7-15 (2006).

C.L. Elzinga. Vegetation Monitoring: an Annotated Bibliography. 352: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, (1997).

J. Fang, F. Wu.; W. Yang, J. Zhang, and H. Cai. Effects of drought on the growth and resource use efficiency of two endemic species in an arid ecotone. Acta Ecologica Sinica 32(4): 195-201 (2012).

W. Jianlin, Y. Guirui, F. Quanxiao, J. Defeng, Q. Hua, and W. Qiufeng. Responses of water use efficiency of 9 plant species to light and CO2 and their modeling. Acta Ecologica Sinica 28(2): 525-533 (2008).

N.M. Jaafar, P.L. Clode, and L.K. Abbott. Soil microbial responses to biochars varying in particle size, surface and pore properties. Pedosphere 25(5): 770-780 (2015).

S. Gul, J.K. Whalen, B.W. Thomas, V. Sachdeva, and H. Deng. Physico-chemical properties and microbial responses in biochar-amended soils: mechanisms and future directions. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 206: 46-59 (2015).

R.E. Masto, S. Kumar, T.K. Rout, P. Sarkar, J. George, and L.C. Ram. Biochar from water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) and its impact on soil biological activity. Catena 111: 64-71 (2013).

S. Saud, Y. Chen, S. Fahad, S. Hussain, L. Na, L. Xin, and S.A. Alhussien. Silicate application increases the photosynthesis and its associated metabolic activities in Kentucky bluegrass under drought stress and post-drought recovery. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23(17): 17647-17655 (2016).

L.E. Datnoff, G.H. Snyder, and G.H. Korndörfer (Eds.). Silicon in agriculture. Elsevier (2001).

S. Saud, S. Fahad, C. Yajun, M.Z. Ihsan, H.M. Hammad, W. Nasim, Jr. Amanullah, M. Arif, and H. Alharby. Effects of nitrogen supply on water stress and recovery mechanisms in Kentucky bluegrass plants. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 983 (2017).

P. Sashidhar, M. Kochar, B. Singh, M. Gupta, D. Cahill, A. Adholeya, and M. Dube. Biochar for delivery of agri-inputs: Current status and future perspectives. Science of the Total Environment 703: 134892 (2020).

T.J. Purakayastha, S. Kumari, and H. Pathak, Characterization, stability, and microbial effects of four biochars produced from crop residues. Geoderma 239: 293-303 (2015).

S.S. Ardakani, A. Heydari, L. Tayebi, and M. Mohammadi. Promotion of cotton seedlings growth characteristics by development and use of new bioformulations. International Journal of Botany 6(2): 95-100 (2010).

K. Saranya, P.S. Krishnan, K. Kumutha, and J. French. Potential for biochar as an alternate carrier to lignite for the preparation of biofertilizers in India. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology 4(2): 167-172 (2011).

D. Dong, Q. Feng, K. Mcgrouther, M. Yang, H. Wang, and W. Wu. Effects of biochar amendment on rice growth and nitrogen retention in a waterlogged paddy field. Journal of Soils and Sediments 15(1): 153-162 (2015).

K.T. Win, K. Okazaki, T. Ookawa, T. Yokoyama, and Y. Ohwaki. Influence of rice-husk biochar and Bacillus pumilus strain TUAT-1 on yield, biomass production, and nutrient uptake in two forage rice genotypes. PLoS One 14(7): e0220236 (2019).

E.P.A. Pratiwi, and Y. Shinogi. Rice husk biochar application to paddy soil and its effects on soil physical properties, plant growth, and methane emission. Paddy and Water Environment 14(4): 521-532 (2016).

M.A. Shashi, M.A. Mannan, M.M. Islam, and M.M. Rahman. Impact of rice husk biochar on growth, water relations and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought condition. The Agriculturists 16(02): 93-101 (2018).

M.E. McGiffen, J.B. Masiunas, and M.G. Huck. Tomato and nightshade (Solanum nigrum L. and S. ptycanthum Dun.) effects on soil water content. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 117(5): 730-735 (1992).

M. Głodowska, B. Husk, T. Schwinghamer, and D. Smith. Biochar is a growth-promoting alternative to peat moss for the inoculation of corn with a pseudomonad. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 36(1): 1-10 (2016).

K.H. Mustafa, V. Strezov, K.Y. Chin, and P.F. Nelson. Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Chemosphere. 2010, 78, no. 9, 1167-1171.

H.G. Jones, R.R. Serraj, B.R. Loveys, L. Xiong, A. Wheato, and A.H. Price. Thermal infrared imaging of crop canopies for the remote diagnosis and quantification of plant responses to water stress in the field. Functional Plant Biology 36(11): 978-989 (2009).

Z. Tu, X. Ren, J. Zhao, S.K. Awasthi, Q. Wang, M.K. Awasthi, and R. Li. Synergistic effects of biochar/microbial inoculation on the enhancement of pig manure composting. Biochar 1(1): 127-137 (2019).

E.M. Hafez, A.S. Alsohim, M. Farig, A.E.D. Omara, E. Rashwan, and M.M. Kamara. Synergistic effect of biochar and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on alleviation of water deficit in rice plants under salt-affected soil. Agronomy 9(12): 847 (2019).

M. Ilyas, N. Mohammad, K. Nadeem, H. Ali, K. Aamir, H. Kashif, S. Fahad, K. Aziz, and U. Abid. Drought tolerance strategies in plants: a mechanistic approach. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 40(3): 926-944 (2021).

J. Galmés, H. Medrano, and J. Flexas. Photosynthetic limitations in response to water stress and recovery in Mediterranean plants with different growth forms. New Phytologist 175(1): 81-93 (2007).

J. Gindaba, A. Rozanov, and L. Negash. Photosynthetic gas exchange, growth and biomass allocation of two Eucalyptus and three indigenous tree species of Ethiopia under moisture deficit. Forest Ecology and Management 205(1-3): 127-138 (2005).

A.K. Borrell, G.L. Hammer, and R.G. Henzell. Does maintaining green leaf area in sorghum improve yield under drought? II. Dry matter production and yield. Crop Science 40(4): 1037-1048 (2000).

F. Liu, and H. Stutzel. Leaf expansion, stomatal conductance, and transpiration of vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) in response to soil drying. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 127: 878-883 (2002).

Z.M. Solaiman, P. Blackwell, L.K. Abbott, and P. Storer. Direct and residual effect of biochar application on mycorrhizal root colonisation, growth and nutrition of wheat. Soil Research 48(7): 546-554 (2010).

S.S. Akhtar, M.N. Andersen, and F. Liu. Biochar mitigates salinity stress in potato. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 201(5): 368-378 (2015).

T. Hattori, S. Inanaga, H. Araki, P. An, S. Mortia, M. Luxova, and A. Lux. Application of silicon enhanced drought tolerance in Sorghum bicolor. Physiologia Plantarum 123(4): 459-466 (2005).

L. Romdhane, Y.M. Awad, L. Radhouane, C. Dal Cortivo, G. Barion, A. Panozzo, and T. Vamerali. Wood biochar produces different rates of root growth and transpiration in two maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) under drought stress. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 65(6): 846-866 (2019).

X. Zhang, D. Xu, M. Zhao, and Z. Chen. The responses of 17-years-old Chinese fir shoots to elevated CO2. Acta Ecologica Sinica 20(3): 390-396 (2000).

B.A. Kimball, R.L. LaMorte, R.S. Seay, P.J. Pinter Jr, R.R. Rokey, D.J. Hunsaker, ... and K.F. Lewin. Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on energy balance and evapotranspiration of cotton. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 70(1-4): 259-278 (1994).

Downloads

Published

2023-08-30

How to Cite

Batool, A., Rashid, A., & Aziz, I. (2023). Amending Soil with Rhizobium carrying Biochar Ameliorates Drought Stress on Phaseolus vulgaris: Drought Stress Amelioration in Phaseolus using Biochar. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: B. Life and Environmental Sciences, 60(3), 515–537. https://doi.org/10.53560/PPASB(60-3)882

Issue

Section

Research Articles