Biorisk Management and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Biofilm producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Broiler Chicken: A Public Health Concern

Biorisk Management of Biofilm producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Broiler Chicken




Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biofilm, Multidrug resistance, laboratory infections, biorisk management, Antibiotics


Control of biosecurity and biosecurity within poultry consists of a set of practical measures meant to prevent and control the spread of disease between people and animals. Infections, caused mainly by zoonotic agents, occur frequently due to the lack of safety monitoring regulations, as well as the inappropriate use of antimicrobial products, leading to the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, often known as the MDR pathogen has evolved resistance to multiple antibiotics. Because of its propensity to build biofilms in meat and other food products, P. aeruginosa is even more resilient to the phenomenon of drug resistance which is a major public health issue. Standard microbiological and biochemical tests were used to isolate and identify P. aeruginosa from a total of 100 meat samples (20 from each district from broiler chicken meat) gathered from various butcher shops and supermarkets. The Kirby Bauer method was used to identify antibiotic resistance, while the microtiter plate test was used to monitor biofilm formation. It was found that P. aeruginosa was identified from 22% of the broiler chicken meat samples and showed resistance to Cloxacillin, teicoplanin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, and meropenem, followed by linezolid, streptomycin, amikacin, compound sulphonamide, aztreonam and cefepime which showed intermediate resistance. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MARI) was calculated as 0.45 for a total of 11 antibiotics. Also, all 22 MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa tested positive for the presence of the biofilm. In conclusion, it was determined that chicken meat was contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and these strains that produce biofilms are more resistant to antibiotics. Thus, there is a serious threat to public health from biofilm-forming isolates found in broiler chickens.


Y.A. Attia, M.T. Rahman, M.J. Hossain, Basiouni, A.F. Khafaga, A.A. Shehata and H.M. Hafez. Poultry production and sustainability in developing countries under the COVID-19 crisis: Lessons learned. Animals 12(5): 644 (2022).

J.M. Diaz Carrasco, L.M. Redondo, N.A. Casanova, and M.E. Fernandez Miyakawa. The role of farm environment and management in shaping the gut microbiota of poultry. In Gut Microbiota, Immunity, and Health in Production Animals 193-224 (2022).

G.B. Goualie, S.Bakayoko, and K.J. Coulibaly. Practices of biosecurity measures and their consequences on poultry farms in Abidjan district. Food and Environment Safety Journal 19(1) (2020).

FAO. FAO Viet Nam urges improved application of biosecurity along poultry production chain. (2020).

N.T.K. Cuc, N.C. Dinh, N.T.L Quyen, and H.M. Tuan. Biosecurity level practices in pig and poultry production in Vietnam. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences 8(10): 1068-1074 (2020).

K. Kirtonia, M. Salauddin, K.K. Bharadwaj, S. Pati, A. Dey, M.A. Shariati, V.K. Tilak, E. Kuznetsova, and T. Sarkar. Bacteriocin: A new strategic antibiofilm agent in food industries. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology 36: 102141 (2021).

I. Magouras, L.P. Carmo, K.D. Stärk, and G. Schüpbach-Regula. Antimicrobial usage andresistance in livestock: Where should we focus? Front. Vet. Sci. 4:148 (2017).

N.T. Nhung, N. Chansiripornchai, and J.J. Carrique-Mas. Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial poultry pathogens: A review. Frontiers in Veterinary Sciences 4:126 (2017).

D. Lahiri, M. Nag, H.I. Sheikh, T. Sarkar, H.A. Edinur, S. Pati, and R.R. Ray. Microbiologically-Synthesized Nanoparticles and Their Role in Silencing the Biofilm Signaling Cascade. Frontiers in Microbiology 12: 636588 (2021).

V.H. Oliveira, J.T. Sørensen, and P.T. Thomsen. Associations between biosecurity practices and bovine digital dermatitis in Danish dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science 100: 8398–8408 (2017).

S.E. Walker, J.E Sander, J.L. Cline, and J.S Helton. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates associated with mortality in broiler chicks. Avian Diseases 46 (4):1045-1050 (2002).

S.H. Chen, N. Fegan, C. Kocharunchitt, J.P. Bowman, and L.L. Duffy. Changes of the bacterial community diversity on chicken carcasses through an Australian poultry processing line. Food Microbiology 86:103350 (2020).

M.W. Azam, and A.U. Khan, Updates on the pathogenicity status of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Drug discovery today 24(1): 350-359 (2019).

M. Rybtke, L.D. Hultqvist, M. Givskov, and T. Tolker-Nielsen. P. aeruginosa biofilm infections: Community structure, antimicrobial tolerance and immune response. Journal of Molecular Biology 427: 3628–3645 (2015).

O. Adebowale, M. Makanjuola, N. Bankole, M. Olasoju, A. Alamu, E. Kperegbeyi, O. Oladejo, O. Fasanmi, O. Adeyemo, and F.O. Fasina. Multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli, biosecurity and anti-microbial use in live bird markets, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Antibiotics 11(2): 253 (2022).

X. Liu, H. Wang, L. Li, C. Deng, Y. Chen, , H. Ding, and Z. Yu. Do microplastic biofilms promote the evolution and co-selection of antibiotic and metal resistance genes and their associations with bacterial communities under antibiotic and metal pressures? Journal of Hazardous Materials 424:127285 (2022).

R.V. Sionov, and D. Steinberg. Targeting the holy triangle of quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. Microorganisms 10(6): p.1239 (2022).

E. Butucel, I. Balta, D. McCleery, F. Morariu, I. Pet, C.A. Popescu, L. Stef, and N. Corcionivoschi. Farm Biosecurity Measures and Interventions with an Impact on Bacterial Biofilms. Agriculture 12(8):1251 (2022).

S.H. Toushik, A. Roy, M. Alam, U.H. Rahman, N.K. Nath, S. Nahar, B. M.J. MatubberUddin, and P.K. Roy. Pernicious Attitude of Microbial Biofilms in Agri-Farm Industries: Acquisitions and Challenges of Existing Antibiofilm Approaches. Microorganisms 10(12): 2348 (2022).

A. Catalano, D. Iacopetta, J. Ceramella, D. Scumaci, F. Giuzio, C. Saturnino, S. Aquaro, C. Rosano and M.S. Sinicropi. Multidrug resistance (MDR): A widespread phenomenon in pharmacological therapies. Molecules, 27(3): 616 (2022).

A. Saman, M. Chaudhry, M. Ijaz, W. Shaukat, M.U. Zaheer, A. Mateus, and A. Rehman. Assessment of knowledge, perception, practices and drivers of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial usage among veterinarians in Pakistan. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 212: 105836 (2023).

A.A. Saied, A.A. Metwally, M. Dhawan, O.P. Choudhary and H. Aiash. Strengthening vaccines and medicines manufacturing capabilities in Africa: challenges and perspectives. EMBO Molecular Medicine 14(8): e16287 (2022).



How to Cite

Mehmood, S., Ali, K., Bashir, A., Farid, N., Fatima, K., & Naz, S. (2023). Biorisk Management and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Biofilm producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Broiler Chicken: A Public Health Concern: Biorisk Management of Biofilm producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Broiler Chicken. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: B. Life and Environmental Sciences, 60(3).



Research Articles