Municipal Solid Waste Management in Skardu: Current Status, and Corrective Measures


  • Imran Hussain Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Baltistan Skardu, Pakistan
  • Kacho Muhammad Imran Khan Gilgit Baltistan Waste Management Company, Skardu, Pakistan
  • Salar Ali Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Baltistan Skardu, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Ayub PARC, Agricultural Research Station Skardu, Pakistan
  • Atia Fehmi Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Zakir Hussain Laboratory of Mountain Surface Processes and Ecological Regulation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Conservancy, Chengdu 610041, China



Solid Waste Management, Skardu, GBWMC, Household Waste, Commercial Waste


Solid waste management (SWM) is a marginalized sector in Gilgit Baltistan, causing a frightening situation, especially in the municipal area of district Skardu. The total municipal area of Skardu is about 4260 sq. km with a population of approximately 112996. In line with other government departments, the Gilgit Baltistan waste management company (GBWMC) is responsible for collecting and dumping solid waste. The current study was devised to calculate, characterize, and analyze the past status, and current position of municipal solid waste (MSW) production, so that necessary management practices and corrective measures can be carried out more efficiently in the study area. A series of interviews of concerned persons as well as extensive field surveys were conducted. The method used by GBWMC to collect waste was: door-to-door collection, placement of waste bins, and collection from the arterial roads. Waste was collected manually in polythene bags, handcarts, and baskets. The findings revealed that approximately 45-50 tonnes of waste was generated per day in the winter and in the summer it increases to 50-55 tonnes. The average waste generation was 0.43 kg per capita per day and is increasing at a rate of 2.28% annually. The main sources of waste were commercial and household waste contributing approximately 60 % and 40% of the total waste production respectively.  There was no scientific disposal system for the collected waste which is dumped on the dumping sites by utilizing available resources considering Environmental protection agency (EPA) regulations along the Indus River bank. Thus specific steps should be taken to develop a proper scientific disposal system of collected wastes by incorporating the experts' expertise and modern technologies.


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How to Cite

Imran Hussain, Kacho Muhammad Imran Khan, Salar Ali, Muhammad Ayub, Atia Fehmi, & Zakir Hussain. (2023). Municipal Solid Waste Management in Skardu: Current Status, and Corrective Measures. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: B. Life and Environmental Sciences, 60(3), 455–562.



Research Articles