Vertical Farming of Horticulture Crops: A Recent Trend


  • Pallvi Verma School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India
  • Manish Bakshi School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India
  • Lakshya School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India



Vertical farming, Horticulture, Fruits and vegetables


Vertical farming now a day is gaining status as complementary to traditional farming practices, allowing for more sustainable food production for the world's growing population. While early studies on vertical farming systems focused primarily on the advancement of technology through innovative designs, hydroponic cultivation automation monitoring, and the use of advanced LED lighting systems, more recent studies have focused on the resilience and circularity of vertical farming. Over the last few decades, there have been elevated concerns about ethical cultivation practices and environmental issues, reliance on non renewable resources, commitment to biodiversity conservation, ration scarcity, and its leverage to hunger. Environmental issues, such as economic justice issues, biodiversity commitments, and a focus on food security issues, have gained traction in social work. Vertical farming is one of the solutions to many problems including food and nutritional security, environment safety, resource utilization, land fragmentation, climate resilience agriculture, etc.


T. Van Gerrewey, T. Boon, and D. Geelen. Vertical Farming: The Only Way Is Up? Agronomy 12(1): 2 (2022).

M.S. Sonawane. Status of vertical farming in India. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology 9(4): 122-125 (2018).

K. Naskoori, K.K. Reddy, M.V. Reddy, and M.R. Devi. To study the scope of vertical farming in India: A review. The Pharma Innovation Journal 10(12): 158-162 (2021).

D.D. Avgoustaki, and G. Xydis. How energy innovation in indoor vertical farming can improve food security, sustainability, and food safety? Elsevier. In Advances in Food Security and Sustainability 5: 1-51(2020).

A.M. Beacham, L.H. Vickers, and J.M. Monaghan. Vertical farming: a summary of approaches to growing skywards. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 94(3): 277-283 (2019).

A. Sarkar, and M. Majumder. Opportunities and challenges in sustainability of vertical eco-farming: A review. Journal of Advanced Agricultural Technologies 2(2) (2015).

F.H. Besthorn. Vertical farming: Social work and sustainable urban agriculture in an age of global food crises. Australian Social Work 66(2), 187-203 (2013).

K. Benke, and B. Tomkins. Future food-production systems: vertical farming and controlled-environment agriculture. Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 13(1): 13-26 (2017).

M. Butturini, and L.F. Marcelis (2020). Vertical farming in Europe: Present status and outlook. In Plant Factory 77-91 (2020).

G.W. Michael, F.S. Tay, and Y.L. Then. Development of Automated Monitoring System for Hydroponics Vertical Farming. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series IOP Publishing 1844(1): 012024 (2021).

C.E. Wong, Z.W.N. Teo, L. Shen, and H. Yu. Seeing the lights for leafy greens in indoor vertical farming. Trends in Food Science & Technology 106: 48-63 (2020).

M.A. Mustafa, and H.A Rahman. A comparison of Vertical and Conventional Cultivation, Planting Distances and Growing Medium in the Growth and Yield of Three Varieties of Strawberry. In: IOP Conference Series-Earth and Environmental Science. IOP Publishing 904(1): 012060 (2021).

C. Banerjee, and L. Adenaeuer. Up, up and away! The economics of vertical farming. Journal of Agricultural Studies2(1), 40-60 (2014).

H.F. Mok, V.G. Williamson, J.R. Grove, K. Burry, S.F. Barker, and A.J. Hamilton. Strawberry fields forever? Urban agriculture in developed countries: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development34(1), 21-43 (2014).

C.A. O’Sullivan, C.L. McIntyre, I.B. Dry, S.M. Hani, Z. Hochman, and G.D. Bonnett. Vertical farms bear fruit. Nature Biotechnology 38 (2), 160-162 (2020).

N.N. Saxena. The Review on Techniques of Vertical Farming. International Journal of Modern Agriculture 10(1): 732-738 (2021).

K. Shubha, A. Mukherjee, M. Tamata, N. Raju, and T.K. Koley. Vertical Farming of High Value Horticultural Crops. ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region 35 (2019).

C. Zeidler, and D. Schubert. From Bioregenerative Life Support Systems for Space to Vertical Farming on Earth–The 100% Spin-off (2014).

R. Colangelo.The Cea Wars! (2022). (accessed 30 November 2022).

A. Kappes: Greener Crop On The Road In the Midwest (2023). (accessed 9 February 2023).

M. Muller, and V. Gelder. Dutch technology once again patented in 75 countries (2008). (accessed June 2017).

S. Flug. Welcome to the vertical harvest farms – Interview with new employees (2022). (accessed 22 July 2022).

D.D. Avgoustaki, and G. Xydis. Indoor vertical farming in the urban nexus context: Business growth and resource savings. Sustainability12(5), 1965 (2020).

M. Sharath Kumar, E. Heuvelink, and L.F. Marcelis. Vertical farming: moving from genetic to environmental modification. Trends in plant science, 25(8), 724-727 (2020).

S.C. Lauguico, R.S. Concepcion,D.D.Macasaet, J.D. Alejandrino, A.A. Bandala, and E. P. Dadios. Implementation of Inverse Kinematics for Crop-Harvesting Robotic Arm in Vertical Farming. In 2019 IEEE International Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems (CIS) and IEEE Conference on Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics (RAM) 298-303 (2019).

J. Zheng, D. He, and F. Ji. Effects of light intensity and photoperiod on runner plant propagation of hydroponic strawberry transplants under LED lighting. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering 12(6): 26-31 (2019).

X.P. Song, H.T. Tan, and P.Y. Tan. Assessment of light adequacy for vertical farming in a tropical city. Urban Forestry &Urban Greening29: 49-57 (2018).

Z. Wiggins, O. Akaeze, D. Nandwani, and A. Witcher. Substrate properties and fertilizer rates on yield responses of lettuce in a vertical growth system. Sustainability12(16): 6465 (2020).

T.K.L. Nguyen, K. M. Cho, H.Y. Lee, D.Y. Cho, G.O. Lee, S.N. Jang, and K.H. Son, Effects of white LED lighting with specific shorter blue and/or green wavelength on the growth and quality of two lettuce cultivars in a vertical farming system. Agronomy11(11): 2111 (2021).

T. Graham, and R. Wheeler. Mechanical stimulation modifies canopy architecture and improves volume utilization efficiency in bell pepper: implications for bioregenerative life-support and vertical farming. Open agriculture2(1): 42-51 (2017).

S.S. Meena, G. Lal, R.S. Mehta, R.D. Meena, N. Kumar, and G.K. Tripathi. Comparative study for yield and economics of seed spices based cropping system with fruit and vegetable crops (2017).

B.M. Santos, T.P. Salame-Donoso, and S.C. Arango. Solutions for Small Farmers and Home Gardens: Building a Low-Cost Vertical Soilless System for Production of Small Vegetable and Fruit Crops. EDIS 8 (2010).

M. Martin, and E. Molin. Assessing the energy and environmental performance of vertical hydroponic farming (2018).



How to Cite

Pallvi Verma, Manish Bakshi, & Lakshya. (2023). Vertical Farming of Horticulture Crops: A Recent Trend. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: B. Life and Environmental Sciences, 60(3).



Review Articles