Fruit Morphological and Biochemical Characterization of Three Saudi Arabian Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivars Grown in District Khairpur, Pakistan

Authors

  • Najamuddin Solangi Date Palm Research Institute, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan
  • Mushtaque Ahmed Jatoi Date Palm Research Institute, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan
  • Nizamuddin Tunio Date Palm Research Institute, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan
  • Abdul Aziz Mirani Date Palm Research Institute, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan
  • Adel Ahmed Abul-Soad Horticulture Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
  • Ghulam Sarwar Markhand Date Palm Research Institute, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.53560/PPASB(61-1)939

Keywords:

Biochemical Analysis, Moisture Content, Total soluble solids, Morphological Analysis, Rutab, Tamar

Abstract

In the present study fruit morphological and biochemical characterization of three Saudi Arabian date palm cvs. (Ajwa, Safawi and Ruthana) were carried out, which were cultivated in the district Khairpur, Pakistan. Fruits were collected at four different fruit growth stages (kimri, khalal, rutab and tamar) from fifteen years old trees for morphological (fruit colour, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, pulp ratio, seed length, seed diameter, seed weight) and biochemical analyses (moisture content, pH, total soluble solids, total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars). Results of fruits physical characters showed that significantly highest fruit length (5.5 cm at rutab stage), fruit weight (20.2 g at khalal stage) was observed in cv. Safawi, whereas at khalal stage significantly lowest fruit length (3.4 cm) was observed in cv. Ajwa and fruit weight (13.2 g) was observed in cv. Ruthana. Fruits showed significant variations in colour and weight from kimri to tamar stage. Biochemical analyses of fruits revealed that highest moisture content (86.2%) was observed in fruits of cv. Ruthana at kimri stage. Total soluble solids (TSS) increased from 8.7% (at kimri stage) to 20.5% (at tamar stage) in cv. Ruthana. pH of the fruits at kimri stage was 3.2 in cv. Ajwa, whereas pH increased to 5.2 in cv. Ruthana at tamar stage. Total sugars (reducing and non-reducing) increased from 7.56% in cv. Ajwa at kimri stage to 69.7% in cv. Safawi at tamar stage as significantly highest values. Findings obtained in the present study described morphological attributes and biochemical constituents of the fruits of three exotic cultivars introduced in climatic conditions of the district Khairpur, Pakistan will open the route and interest of the farmers to introduce other elite date cultivars grown in the world.

References

N. Solangi, M.A. Jatoi, A.A. Abul-Soad, A.A. Mirani, M.A. Solangi, and G.S. Markhand. Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration of date palm using immature floral buds. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 39(2): 323–331 (2023).

C.T. Chao, and R.R. Krueger. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.): overview of biology, uses, and cultivation. HortScience 42(5), 1077–1082 (2007).

Maryam, M.J. Jaskani, S. Ahmad, and F.S. Awan. Metaxenial effects on morphological attributes in date palm Cvs. Hillawi and Khadrawy. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 52: 385-391 (2015).

M.S. Haider, I.A. Khan, M.J. Jaskani, S.A. Naqvi, M. Hameed, M. Azam, A.A. Khan, and J.C. Pintaud. Assessment of morphological attributes of date palm accessions of diverse agro-ecological origin. Pakistan Journal of Botany 47: 1143-1151 (2015).

P.K. Vayalil. Date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.): an emerging medicinal food. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 52(3): 249–271 (2012).

C. Selmani, D. Chabane, and N. Bouguedoura. Ethnobotanical survey of Phoenix dactylifera L. pollen used for the treatment of infertility problems in Algerian oases. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine 14(3): 175–186 (2017).

K. Rajmohan. Date palm tissue culture: A pathway to rural development. In: Jain, S.M., Al-Khayri, J.M., Johnson, D.V. (Eds.), Date palm biotechnology. Springer, Dordrecht (2011)

A.S. Hussein, G.A. Alhadrami, and Y.H. Khalil. The use of dates and date pits in broiler starter and finisher diets. Bioresource Technology 66: 219-223 (1998).

M.I. Hussain, M. Farooq, and Q.A. Syed. Nutritional and biological characteristics of the date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.)—A review. Food Bioscience 34: 100509 (2020).

G.S. Markhand, A.A. Abul-Soad, A.A. Mirbahar, and N.A. Kanhar. Fruit characterization of Pakistani dates. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42: 3715-3722 (2010).

B. Ismail, I. Haffar, R. Baalbaki, Y. Mechref, and J. Henry. Physicochemical characteristics and total quality of five date varieties grown in the United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 41(8): 919–926 (2006).

M. Baliga, B.R. Baliga, S.M. Kandathil, H.P. Bhat, and P. Vayalil. A review of the chemistry and pharmacology of the date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Food Research International 44: 1812–1822 (2011).

F.M. Al-Jasass, M. Siddiq, and D.S. Sogi. Antioxidants activity and color evaluation of date fruit of selected cultivars commercially available in the United States. Advances in Chemistry 2015: 567203 (2015).

Y. Noui, O. Lombarkia, A. Bekrar, H. Chibane, A. Lekbir, and M. Abdeddaim. Comparative study of the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of three dates varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.) grown in Algeria. Annals. Food Science and Technology 15(2): 276–283 (2014).

A. Said, D. Kaoutrher, B. Ahmed, T. Mohammed, and T. Brahim. Dates quality assessment of the main date palm cultivars grown in Algeria. Annual Research and Review in Biology 4: 487–499 (2014).

H. Tapiero, K. Tew, G. Nguyen Ba, and G. Mathe. Polyphenols: do they play a role in the prevention of human pathologies? Biomed Pharmacother. 56: 200-7 (2002).

M. Al-Mamary, M. Al-Habori, and A. Al-Zubairi. The in vitro antioxidant activity of different types of palm dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) syrups. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 7: 964–971 (2014).

J. Cunningham, and R. Sobolewski. Food composition databases for nutrition labelling: Experience from Australia. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 24: 682–685 (2011).

A.A. Moustafa, A.A. EI-Aidy, and A.P. EI-Sammak. ‘Evaluation of two seedling date palms grown in El-Wady EI-Gedid in comparison to standard cultivar "Heigazy". Proceeding of 2nd Symposium of the date palm in Saudi Arabia 1: 153-161 (1986).

AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of analysis, Washington, DC (2000).

R. Al Udhaib. Solvent extraction of antioxidants, phenols and flavonoids from Saudi Arabia dates. Master of Applied Science, Thesis. Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia (2015).

A.G. Tafti, and M.H. Fooladi. A study on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Iranian Shamsaei date at different stages of maturity. World Journal of Dairy and Food Sciences 1(1): 28-32 (2006).

N.A. Abdul-Hamid, N.H. Mustaffer, M. Maulidiani, A. Mediani, I.S. Ismail, C.L. Tham, K. Shadid, and F. Abas. Quality evaluation of the physical properties, phytochemicals, biological activities and proximate analysis of nine Saudi date palm fruit varieties. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 19: 151–160 (2020).

R. Khodabakhshian, and M. Khojastehpour. Characteristics changes of date fruits during ripening period on palm. Agricultural Engineering International CIGR Journal 23(4): 243-255 (2021).

I. Samarawira. Date Palm, Potential Source for Refined Sugar. Economic Botany 37(2): 181-186 (1983).

W. Al-Shahib, and R. Marshall. The Fruit of the Date Palm: its Possible Use as the Best Food for the Future. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 54(4): 247-259 (2003).

F. Biglari, A.F.M. AlKarkhi, and A.M. Easa. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of various date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits from Iran. Food Chemistry 107(4): 1636- 1641 (2008).

M. Al-Farsi, C. Alasalvar, A. Morris, M. Baron, and F. Shaihdi. Comparison of antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, carotenods and phenolics of three native fresh and sun-dried date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties grown in Oman. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53(19): 7592-7599 (2005).

M.S. Haider, I.A. Khan, M.J. Jaskani, S.A. Naqvi, S. Mateen, U. Shahzad, and H. Abbas. Pomological and biochemical profiling of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) during different fruit maturation phases. Pakistan Journal of Botany 50(3): 1069-1076 (2018).

F. Guido, S.E. Behija, I. Manel, Z. Nesrine, F. Ali, H. Mohamed, H.A. Noureddine and A. Lotfi. Chemical and aroma volatile compositions of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits at three maturation stages. Food Chemistry 127: 1744-1754 (2011).

S. Rastegar, M. Rahemi, A. Baghizadeh, and M. Gholami. Enzyme activity and biochemical changes of three date palm cultivars with different softening pattern during ripening. Food Chemistry 134: 1279-1286 (2012).

R. Ahmed, H.M. Ali, A. Lisek, W.F.A. Mosa, S. Ercisli, and M.A. Anjum. Correlation among some phenological and biochemical traits in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) germplasm. Frontiers in Plant Sciences 14: 1118069 (2023).

M. Iqbal, Imranullah, M. Munir, and M. Naimatullah. Physio-chemical characteristics of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars at various maturity stages under environmental conditions of Dera Ismail Khan. Journal of Agricultural Research 49(2): 249-261 (2011).

M.I. Asif, O.A. Al-Tahir, and M.S. Al-Kahtani. Inter-Regional and Inter-Variety variations in dates grown in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Proceedings of the First Symposium on the Date Palm. 23-25 March, King Faisal University, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia pp. 234-248 (1982).

A.A.A. Gasim. Changes in Sugar Quality and Mineral Elements During Fruit Development in Five Date Palm Varieties in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah. Journal of King Abdulaziz University Science 6(1): 29-36 (1994).

K.A. Awan, M.S. Butt, M.K. Sharif, and F. Hussain. Compositional profiling of selected Pakistani date cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 55: 575–581 (2018).

R.M. Myhara, J. Karkalas, and M.S. Taylor. The composition of maturing Omani dates. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79(11): 1345-1350 (1999).

S. Al-Hooti, J.S. Sidhu, and H. Qabazard. Physicochemical characteristics of five date fruit cultivars grown in the United Arab Emirates. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 50: 101–113 (1997).

M. Nadeem, S.U. Rehman, F.M. Anjum, and I.A. Bhatti. Textural profile analysis and phenolic contents of some date palm varieties. Journal of Agricultural Research 49: 525-539 (2011).

C. Nazir, A. Ferchichi, A. Mrabel, and M. Sghairoun. Chemical composition of flesh and pit of date palm fruit and their radical scavenging activity of their extracts. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10: 2202-2207 (2007).

H. AlShwyeh, and H. Almahasheer. Glucose content of 35 Saudi Arabian date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 21(6): 420-424 (2022).

H. Habib, and W. Ibrahim. Nutritional quality of 18 date fruit varieties. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition 62: 544–551 (2011).

G. Toutain. Le palmier dattier, culture et production. Al-Awamia 25: 51–83 (1967).

S. Khalid, A. Ahmad, T. Masud, M.J. Asad, and M. Sandhu. Nutritional assessment of Ajwa date flesh and pits in comparison to local varieties. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences 26(4): 1072-1080 (2016).

S.A. El-Sohaimy, and E.E. Hafez. Biochemical and nutritional characterizations of date palm fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Journal of Applied Sciences Research 6(6): 1060–1067 (2010).

S.M.H. Mortazavi, F. Azizollahi, and N. Moalemi. Some quality attributes and biochemical properties of nine Iranian date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars at different stages of fruit development. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 2(2): 161-171 (2015).

M.S. Jamil, R. Nadeem, M.A. Hasif, M.A. Ali, and K. Akhtar. Proximate composition and mineral profile of eight different unstudied date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties from Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology 9: 3252–3259 (2010).

Downloads

Published

2024-03-29

How to Cite

Solangi, N., Mushtaque Ahmed Jatoi, Tunio, N., Mirani, A. A., Adel Ahmed Abul-Soad, & Markhand, G. S. (2024). Fruit Morphological and Biochemical Characterization of Three Saudi Arabian Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivars Grown in District Khairpur, Pakistan. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: B. Life and Environmental Sciences, 61(1), 11–20. https://doi.org/10.53560/PPASB(61-1)939

Issue

Section

Research Articles