Fruit Morphological and Biochemical Characterization of Three Saudi Arabian Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivars Grown in District Khairpur, Pakistan


  • Najamuddin Solangi Date Palm Research Institute, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan
  • Mushtaque Ahmed Jatoi Date Palm Research Institute, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan
  • Nizamuddin Tunio Date Palm Research Institute, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan
  • Abdul Aziz Mirani Date Palm Research Institute, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan
  • Adel Ahmed Abul-Soad Horticulture Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
  • Ghulam Sarwar Markhand Date Palm Research Institute, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan



Biochemical Analysis, Moisture Content, Total soluble solids, Morphological Analysis, Rutab, Tamar


In the present study fruit morphological and biochemical characterization of three Saudi Arabian date palm cvs. (Ajwa, Safawi and Ruthana) were carried out, which were cultivated in the district Khairpur, Pakistan. Fruits were collected at four different fruit growth stages (kimri, khalal, rutab and tamar) from fifteen years old trees for morphological (fruit colour, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, pulp ratio, seed length, seed diameter, seed weight) and biochemical analyses (moisture content, pH, total soluble solids, total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars). Results of fruits physical characters showed that significantly highest fruit length (5.5 cm at rutab stage), fruit weight (20.2 g at khalal stage) was observed in cv. Safawi, whereas at khalal stage significantly lowest fruit length (3.4 cm) was observed in cv. Ajwa and fruit weight (13.2 g) was observed in cv. Ruthana. Fruits showed significant variations in colour and weight from kimri to tamar stage. Biochemical analyses of fruits revealed that highest moisture content (86.2%) was observed in fruits of cv. Ruthana at kimri stage. Total soluble solids (TSS) increased from 8.7% (at kimri stage) to 20.5% (at tamar stage) in cv. Ruthana. pH of the fruits at kimri stage was 3.2 in cv. Ajwa, whereas pH increased to 5.2 in cv. Ruthana at tamar stage. Total sugars (reducing and non-reducing) increased from 7.56% in cv. Ajwa at kimri stage to 69.7% in cv. Safawi at tamar stage as significantly highest values. Findings obtained in the present study described morphological attributes and biochemical constituents of the fruits of three exotic cultivars introduced in climatic conditions of the district Khairpur, Pakistan will open the route and interest of the farmers to introduce other elite date cultivars grown in the world.


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How to Cite

Solangi, N., Mushtaque Ahmed Jatoi, Tunio, N., Mirani, A. A., Adel Ahmed Abul-Soad, & Markhand, G. S. (2024). Fruit Morphological and Biochemical Characterization of Three Saudi Arabian Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivars Grown in District Khairpur, Pakistan. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: B. Life and Environmental Sciences, 61(1), 11–20.



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