Daily Life Activities on Smartphones and Their Effect on Battery Life for Better Personal Information Management
Smartphones and Their Effect on Battery Life for Better Personal Information Management
Keywords:Smartphones, power consumption, daily life activities, life logging, battery lifetime
The ubiquity of smartphones is evident from the fact that it is present in the pocket of almost every individual. Because of the increasing computing power and the integration of other abundant resources like storage and sensors, smartphones are proving as the most common Personal Information Management (PIM) platform. Smartphones can capture a broad range of users' experiences as compared to a traditional desktop computer which is evident from the numerous smartphone apps available in app markets for the purpose. These applications capture context of a user by utilizing full resources of the smartphone, especially the sensors. However, limited battery power of smartphones has proven to be the most significant bottleneck. Currently, app-based power consumption is estimated which provide only an indication of per app power usage and is of no use to researchers. This research identifies users' common daily life activities on smartphones and critically analyses their effects on battery power. Our approach looks into the problem through the eyes of researchers working in the domain of intelligent and context-aware systems. An Android-based application called Smartphone Task-based Energy Monitoring System (STEMS) is developed for estimating power consumption rates of different daily life activities. The system collects activities and the power consumption data from the participants' smartphones operating on cellular network with GSM/GPRS and Wi-Fi capabilities. It was found that activities requiring internet connectivity are more energy hungry than others. The results so obtained may prove useful to the stakeholders, like app designers and developers, PIM managers, and the end users.
Bergman, O, R. Boardman, J. Gwizdka, & W. Jones. Personal information management. In: Proceedings of the CHI'04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna, Austria, p. 1598-1599 (2004).
Bush, V. As we may think. The Atlantic Monthly 176: 101-108 (1945).
Oren, E. An overview of information management and knowledge work studies: Lessons for the semanticdesktop. In: Proceedings of the 5th ISWC on the Semantic Desktop, Athens, USA (2006).
Gemmell, J., G. Bell, R. Lueder, S. Drucker, & C. Wong. My Life Bits: Fulfilling the Memex vision. In: Proceedings of the 10th ACM International Conference on Multimedia, Juan-les-Pins, France p. 235-238 (2002).
Sauermann, L., G. Grimnes, & T. R. Berghofer. The semantic desktop as a foundation for PIM research.In: Proceedings of the Personal Information Management Workshop, CHI, p. 1-5 (2008).
Carroll, A. & G. Heiser. An analysis of power consumption in a smartphone. In: Proceedings of the 2010USENIX Conference on USENIX Annual Technical Conference, Boston, USA, p. 1-14 (2010).
Corral, L., A. B. Georgiev, A. Sillitti, & G. Succi. A method for characterizing energy consumption in Android smartphones. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Green and Sustainable Software (GREENS), San Francisco, Caifornia, USA, p. 38-45 (2013).
Nielsen. Smartphones: So many apps, so much time [Online]. (2014).Internet Available: http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/news/2014/smartphones -so-many-apps--so-much-time.html(Accessed: February 12, 2015)
Ballve, M. How much time do we really spend on our martphones every day? [Online]. (2013). Internet Available: http://www. businessinsider. com.au/howmuch-time-do-we-spend-on-smartphones-2013-6 (Accessed: February 15, 2015).
Staff, M. Top daily activities on smartphones and tablets [Online]. (2014). Internet Available: http://www.marketingcharts.com/online/top-dailyactivities-on-smartphones-and-tablets-41027/(Accessed: January 05, 2015).
Duggan, M. & L. Rainie. Cell phone activities 2012 [Online]. (2012). Internet Available:http://www.pewinternet.org/files/old.../2012/PIP_CellActivities_11.25.pdf (Accessed: January 22,2015).
Fox, Z. The average smartphone user downloads 25 apps [Online]. (2013). Internet Available:
http://mashable.com/2013/09/05/most-appsdownload-countries/(Accessed: January 22, 2015).
PTI. New app to track how much time you spend on your smartphone every day [Online] (2014).
Internet Available:http://www.hindustantimes.com /technology/apps-updates/new-app-to-track-yourdaily-smartphone-use/article1-1177590.aspx (Accessed: January 23, 2015).
Bircher, W. L. & L. K. John. Analysis of dynamic power management on multi-core processors. In: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International Conference on Supercomputing, Island of Kos, Greece, p. 327-338 (2008).
Perrucci, G. P. F. H. P. Fitzek. & J. Widmer. Survey on energy consumption entities on the smartphone platform. In: Proceedings of the Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring),Yokohama, Japan, p. 1-6 (2011).
Abdesslem, F. B., A. Phillips. & T. Henderson. Less is more: energy-efficient mobile sensing with senseless. In: Proceedings of the 1st ACM Workshop on Networking, Systems, and Applicationsfor Mobile Handhelds, New York, USA, p. 61-62 (2009).
Wang, Y., J. Lin, M. Annavaram, Q. A. Jacobson, J. Hong, B. Krishnamachari & N. Sadeh. A framework of energy efficient mobile sensing for automatic user state recognition. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, New York, USA, p. 179-192 (2009).
Datta, S. K., C. Bonnet & N. Nikaein. Minimizing energy expenditure in smart devices. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Confrerence on Information & Communication Technologies (ICT), Jeju Island, South Korea, p. 712-717 (2013).
Yepang, L. Where has my battery gone? Finding sensor related energy black holes in smartphone applications. In: Proceeding of the IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom), San Diego, USA, p. 2-10 (2013).
Oliner, A, J. A. Iyer, E. Lagerspetz, S. Tarkoma, & I. Stoica. Collaborative energy debugging for mobile devices. In: Proceedings of the 8th USENIX Conference on Hot Topics in System Dependability, Hollywood, USA, p. 1-6 (2012).
Ding,F. F. Xia. W. Zhang. X. Zhao. & C. Ma. Monitoring energy consumption of smartphones. In:Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Internet of Things and 4th International Conference on Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (iThings/CPSCom),, Dalian, China, p. 610-613 (2011).