PCR-based Detection and Prevalence of Theileria Species in Sheep from Quetta District, Balochistan

Authors

  • Nabeela Tariq Department of Zoology, Sardar Bahadur Khan Women’s University, Quetta, Pakistan
  • Maria Khan Department of Zoology, Sardar Bahadur Khan Women’s University, Quetta, Pakistan
  • Tahreem Shaikh Department of Biotechnology, Sardar Bahadur Khan Women’s University, Quetta, Pakistan
  • Zil e Huma Department of Zoology, Sardar Bahadur Khan Women’s University, Quetta, Pakistan
  • Shakeela daud Department of Biotechnology, BUITEMS, Quetta, Pakistan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.53560/PPASB(61-1)800

Keywords:

Theileria species, Sheep, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan

Abstract

Background: Theileriosis is a serious hemoparasitic illness that severely limits the production of small ruminants. The current study aims for early and accurate detection of theileriosis using polymerase chain reaction for treatment as conventional techniques are not specific. Blood samples were collected from sheep between July and October of the year 2020. A total of 100 samples were taken, 69 samples were from tick-infested sheep exhibiting illness signs, while 31 samples were from tick-free sheep.  To detect Theileria species in sheep, DNA was extracted, and the PCR method was used. The prevalence of T. lestoquardi and T. ovis was 22.47% and 64.04%, respectively, with a 13.48% frequency of mixed infection with both species. T. ovis was detected in around 80% of tick-infested sheep, indicating a significant association (P<0.01) with ticks. T. lestoquardi was found in 28.99% of tick-infested sheep, indicating a significant connection (P<0.001) with ticks. The incidence of T. ovis was significantly related to the summer season but T. lestoquardi was non-significantly related to the summer season (P>0.05). A high prevalence of Theileriosis is found in Quetta. The parameters studied were strongly correlated to the infection except for T. lestoquardi with the summer season. Early detection with the help of polymerase chain reaction can accelerate treatment and reduce transmission to increase livestock production in Pakistan. 

References

GOP. Pakistan Economic Survey 2021-22. Finance Division Government of Pakistan (2022). https://www.finance.gov.pk/survey/chapter_22/Economic Survey 2021-22.pdf

M.A. Kakar, A. Raziq, K.M. Haq and M. Faqir. Trends and potential in dairy production of Balochistan province. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research 45(2): 259-262 (2008).

Government of Balochistan. Balochistan Livestock Policy and Strategy 2020-2030. Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Government of Balochistan (2019).

http://livestock.gob.pk/Documents/Initiatives/Notif346CamScanner06-02-202109.37.pdf

M. Fatima, S..Saeed, R.S..Shaikh, M. Ali, and F. Iqbal. A Study on molecular detection of Theileria lestoquardi by PCR amplification in apparently healthy small ruminants from Five Districts of Southern Punjab. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 47(2): 441–446 (2015).

B.D. Perry, T.F. Randolph, J.J. McDermott, K.R. Sones, and P.K. Thornton (Eds.). Investing in Animal Health Research to Alleviate Poverty. International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya (2002).

A. Ghafar, T. Abbas, A. Rehman, Z.U.D. Sandhu, A. Cabezas-Cruz, and A. Jabbar. Systematic review of ticks and tick-borne pathogens of small ruminants in Pakistan. Pathogens 9(11): 937 (2020).

B.J. Mans, R..Pienaar, and A.A. Latif. A review of Theileria diagnostics and epidemiology. International Journal for Parasitology 4(1): 104–118 (2015).

M. Riaz, and Z. Tasawar. A Study on Molecular Diagnosis of Theileria Species Infection by PCR Amplification in Sheep and Goats in Multan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences 60(1): 36–45 (2017).

R. Bishop, A. Musoke, R. Skilton, S. Morzaria, M. Gardner, and V. Nene. Theileria: Life cycle stages associated with the ixodid tick vector. In Ticks: Biology, Disease and Control. A.S. Bowman and P.A. Nuttall (Eds.). Cambridge University Press pp. 308–324 (2008).

M. Zaeemi, H. Haddadzadeh, P. Khazraiinia, B. Kazemi, and M.Bandehpour. Identification of different Theileria species (Theileria lestoquardi, Theileria ovis, and Theileria annulata) in naturally infected sheep using nested PCR-RFLP. Parasitology Research 108(4): 837–843 (2011).

S.J. Clift, N.E. Collins, M.C. Oosthuizen, J.C.A. Steyl, J.A. Lawrence, and E.P. Mitchell. The Pathology of Pathogenic Theileriosis in African Wild Artiodactyls. Veterinary Pathology 57(1): 24–48 (2020).

Theileriosis. OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (2020). https://www.woah.org/fileadmin/Home/eng/Animal_Health_in_the_World/docs/pdf/Disease_cards/THEILERIOSIS.pdf

J. Grimberg, S. Nawoschik, L.Belluscio, R. McKee, A. Turck, and A. Eisenberg. A simple and efficient non-organic procedure for the isolation of genomic DNA from blood. Nucleic Acids Research 17(20): 8390-8390 (1989).

M. Aktas, N. Dumanli, B. Çetinkaya, and A. Çakmak. Field evaluation of PCR in detecting Theileria annulata infection in cattle in eastern Turkey. Veterinary Record 150(17): 548–549 (2002).

K. Altay, M. Aktaş, and N. Dumanli. Theileria infections in small ruminants in the east and southeast Anatolia Türkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi 31(4): 268–271 (2007).

M. Riaz, Z. Tasawar, and M. Z. Ullah. A Study on Molecular Prevalence, Intensity and Associated Risk Factors for Ovine and Caprine Theileriosis from Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences 15(3): 150-157 (2017).

A.Z. Durrani, M. Younus, N. Kamal, N. Mehmood, and A. R. Shakoori. Prevalence of Ovine Theileria Species in District Lahore, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 43(1): 57–60 (2011).

M.A. Khan, M.A. Khan, I. Ahmad, , M.S. Khan, A.A. Anjum, A.Z. Durrani, K. Hameed, I.U. Kakar, A.Wajid, M. Ramazan, and Rafiuddin. Risk factors assessment and molecular characterization of Theileria in small ruminants of Balochistan. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 27(4): 1190–1196 (2017).

B. M.Heidarpour, H.R. Haddadzadeh, B. Kazemi, P. Khazraiinia, M. Bandehpour, and M. Aktas . Molecular identification of ovine Theileria species by a new PCR-RFLP method. Veterinary Parasitology 161(3–4): 171–177 (2009).

S. Yaghfoori, G. Razmi, and M. Heidarpour. Molecular detection of Theileria spp in sheep and vector ticks in Fasa and Kazeroun areas, Fars Province, Iran. Archives of Razi Institute 68(2): 159–164 (2013).

M. Aktaş, K. Altay, and N. Dumanli. Survey of Theileria parasites of sheep in eastern Turkey using polymerase chain reaction. Small Ruminant Research 60(3): 289–293 (2005).

K. Altay, M. Aktaş, and N. Dumanli. Theileria infections in small ruminants in the east and southeast Anatolia. Turkish Society for Parasitology 31(4): 268–271 (2007).

K. Altay, N. Dumanli, and M. Aktas. A study on ovine tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites (Theileria and Babesia) in the East Black Sea Region of Turkey. Parasitology Research 111(1): 149–153 (2012).

E. Hosseini, A.M. Bahrami, E. Hosseini, and M. Razmjo. Theileriosis in Grazing Sheep and its Interrelation with the Reptiles Ticks. Global Veterinaria 10(5): 599–606 (2013).

G. Muhammad, M. Saqib, M. Athar, M. Khan, and M. Asi. Clinico-Epidemiological and Therapeutic Aspects of Bovine Theileriosis. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 19(2): 64–71 (1999).

A.A. Hegab, M.M. Fahmy, O.A. Mahdy, and A.A. Wahba. Parasitological and molecular identification of Theileria Species by PCR-RFLP Method in Sheep, Egypt. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences 3(7): 48–55 (2016).

S. Saeed, M. Jahangir, M. Fatima, R.S. Shaikh, R.M. Khattak, M. Ali, and F. Iqbal. PCR based detection of theileria lestoquardi in apparently healthy sheep and goats from two districts in khyber pukhtoon khwa (Pakistan). Tropical Biomedicine 32(2): 225–232(2015).

F. Iqbal, R.M. Khattak, S. Ozubek, M.N.K. Khattak, A. Rasul, and M. Aktas. Application of the reverse line blot assay for the molecular detection of Theileria and Babesia sp. in sheep and goat blood samples from Pakistan. Iranian Journal of Parasitology 8(2): 289–295 (2013).

Downloads

Published

2024-03-30

How to Cite

Tariq, N., Khan, M., Shaikh, T., Zil e Huma, & Shakeela daud. (2024). PCR-based Detection and Prevalence of Theileria Species in Sheep from Quetta District, Balochistan. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: B. Life and Environmental Sciences, 61(1), 29–34. https://doi.org/10.53560/PPASB(61-1)800

Issue

Section

Research Articles