Two Way Indicator Species Analysis and Distribution Pattern of Weeds of Maize Crop in District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
TWINSPAN Classification and Distribution of Weeds in District Swabi, Pakistan
Keywords:Distribution Pattern, TWINSPAN, Weeds, Maize, Swabi
The present study explains Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and distribution pattern of weeds of maize crop in district Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during August-October, 2018. Weed flora of maize comprised 28 species belonging to 27 genera and 15 families. Based on modified TWINSPAN, Whittaker’s beta-diversity and 5 pseudospecies cut levels (0, 2, 5, 10, 20) as classification parameters and Chi-square as fidelity measure, 5 weed communities were separated viz; Cleome-Eleusine-Achyranthes community, Citrullus-BoerhaviaCommelina community, Parthenium-Leptochloa-Cynodon community, Digitaria-Cynodon-Echinochloa community, and Trianthema-Dactyloctenium-Cyperus community. According to Oosting’s scale, in site-1, six (6) species were observed very rarely (Class I), one (1) species rare (Class II), six (6) species infrequent (Class III), two (2) species
abundant (Class IV) and three (3) species very abundant (Class V). In site-2, three (3) species were observed very rare (Class I), four (4) species rare (Class II), three (3) species infrequent (Class III), three (3) species abundant (Class IV), and one (1) species very abundant (Class V). In site-3, four (4) species were observed very rare (Class I), three (3) species rare (Class II), two (2) species infrequent (Class III), four (4) species abundant (Class IV), and two (2) species very abundant (Class V). Similarly, in site-4, four (4) species each were observed very rarely (Class I) and rare (Class II), five (5) species infrequent (Class III), one (1) species abundant (Class IV), and two (2) species very abundant (Class V). It was concluded that the most densely populated and frequently distributed weed species among all the selected sites were Cynodon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, and Euphorbia prostrata. These weed plants infesting the maize crop that may cause a loss to crop yield. For acquiring better yield, it is necessary to take the appropriate chemical, mechanical and biological measurements for weed control.
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