Deficiency of Iron: A Risk Factor in Pregnant Women in the District Swat


  • Naseer Ullah Centre for Animal Sciences and Fisheries, University of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • Irum Hassan Centre for Animal Sciences and Fisheries, University of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • Maria Rahman Centre for Animal Sciences and Fisheries, University of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • Akhtar Rasool Centre for Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Israr Department of Forensic Sciences, University of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Attaullah Department of Zoology, University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • Sayed Ihtishamullah Centre for Animal Sciences and Fisheries, University of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
  • Ikram Ilahi Department of Zoology, University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan



Pregnancy, Anaemia, haemoglobin, Swat


Iron is an essential element for the body. Its requirements increase during pregnancy. Improper use of iron may lead to anaemia in the mother. Anaemia may lead to complications such as abortion, stillbirth, and congenital abnormalities in the fetus of pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the iron level and problems associated with iron deficiency in pregnant women in Swat District. Samples were collected from eight hundred pregnant women. The iron status was determined by measuring haemoglobin levels using Sahli’s Method and the Haematology Analyzer. In total, 54 % were anaemic. The age group 41-45 was highly anaemic (100 %) followed by 15-20 (74 %) while the 31-35 age group was the least anaemic (42 %). The Underweight was the highly anaemic group (83 %) and the obese were the least anaemic group (12 %). Pregnant women with second trimester gestational age were the least anaemic (34 %) while the third trimester was the highly anaemic (67 %). It was concluded that iron deficiency is a common issue in pregnant women in District Swat.


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How to Cite

Naseer Ullah, Irum Hassan, Maria Rahman, Akhtar Rasool, Muhammad Israr, Muhammad Attaullah, Sayed Ihtishamullah, & Ikram Ilahi. (2023). Deficiency of Iron: A Risk Factor in Pregnant Women in the District Swat. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: B. Life and Environmental Sciences, 60(4), 621–626.



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