Knowledge of Medical Students regarding Antimicrobial Resistance


  • Zaid Al-Attar Al-Kindy College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Saba Jassim Al-Kindy College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Mohammed Anwar Abbood General surgeon /Al -Turath University, Ministry of Health, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Wijdan Akram Hussein Al-Kindy College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq



Antibiotic Resistance, Knowledge


The discovery of antibiotics has enhanced the treatment outcomes of infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the injudicious use of antibiotics has triggered a global public health crisis and caused a worldwide spread of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. Antimicrobial resistance is slowly becoming a major health problem all around the world, especially in our country, and this might be due to the incorrect, unwise prescription of antimicrobial agents among some doctors, which gives rise to this problem. The present study aimed to estimate the knowledge of medical students in Baghdad regarding antimicrobial usage and resistance and to find the association of sociodemographic factors with knowledge scores. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in six medical colleges in Baghdad. An online- based questionnaire was published and used in collecting the data. The data were reviewed and entered to be statistically analyzed in SPSS using the Chi-square test and were presented as frequencies, percentages, graphs and tables. The results showed that 44.1% of the studied sample had a fair knowledge of antimicrobial resistance. There was a statistical significance between gender and knowledge about antimicrobial resistance as the P-value was 0.006. In addition, there was a statistically significant association between the stage and the knowledge about antimicrobial resistance, where the P-value was (0.000). It was concluded that most of the participants had fair to good knowledge regarding antimicrobial resistance that was significantly associated with gender and stage.


M.K. Gupta, C. Vohra, and P. Raghav. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices about antibiotic resistance among medical students in India. J Family Med Prim Care.8(9):2864 (2019).

G. Harikumar, and K. Krishanan. The growing menace of drug resistant pathogens and recent strategies to overcome drug resistance: A review. Journal of King Saud University-Science:101979 (2022).

A. Jairoun, N. Hassan, A. Ali, O. Jairoun, and M. Shahwan. Knowledge, attitude and practice of antibiotic use among university students: a cross sectional study in UAE. BMC public health.19(1):1-8 (2019).

A. Zulu, S. K. Matafwali, M. Banda, and S. Mudenda. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practices on antibiotic resistance among undergraduate medical students in the school of medicine at the University of Zambia. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol.9(2):263-70 (2020).

WHO. Antimicrobial resistance 2021 2021 [Available from:

P. Dadgostar. Antimicrobial resistance: implications and costs. Infection and drug resistance: 3903-10 (2019).

E.E. Chukwu, D.A. Oladele, O.B. Awoderu, E.E. Afocha, R.G. Lawal, and I. Abdus-Salam. A national survey of public awareness of antimicrobial resistance in Nigeria. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control 9(1): 1-10 (2020).

O.B. Jonas, A. Irwin, F.C.J. Berthe, F.G. Le Gall, and P.V. Marquez. Drug-resistant infections: a threat to our economic future (Vol. 2): final report. HNP/Agriculture Global Antimicrobial Resistance Initiative (2017).

P. Efthymiou, D. Gkentzi, and G. Dimitriou. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of medical students on antimicrobial stewardship. Antibiotics 9(11):821 (2020).

M.A. Seid, and M.S. Hussen. Knowledge and attitude towards antimicrobial resistance among final year undergraduate paramedical students at University of Gondar, Ethiopia. BMC infectious diseases 18:1-8 (2018).

K. Sharma, P. Jain, and A. Sharma. Knowledge, attitude and perception of medical and dental undergraduates about antimicrobial stewardship. Indian journal of pharmacology 47(6):676 (2015).

I.O. Alex. Knowledge of antibiotic use and resistance among students of a medical school in Nigeria. Malawi Medical Journal 31(2):133-7 (2019).

Y. Wang, F. Guo, J. Wei, Y. Zhang, Z. Liu, and Y. Huang. Knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to antimicrobial resistance amongst Chinese public health undergraduates. Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance 23:9-15 (2020).

I.A. Odetokun, U. Akpabio, N.B. Alhaji, K.T. Biobaku, N.O. Oloso, and I. Ghali-Mohammed. Knowledge of antimicrobial resistance among veterinary students and their personal antibiotic use practices: A national cross-sectional survey. Antibiotics 8(4):243 (2019).

M. Haque, N.A.A. Rahman, J. McKimm, M. Sartelli, G. M. Kibria, and M.Z. Islam. Antibiotic use: A cross-sectional study evaluating the understanding, usage and perspectives of medical students and pathfinders of a public defence university in Malaysia. Antibiotics.8(3):154 (2019).



How to Cite

Zaid Al-Attar, Saba Jassim, Mohammed Anwar Abbood, & Wijdan Akram Hussein. (2023). Knowledge of Medical Students regarding Antimicrobial Resistance. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: B. Life and Environmental Sciences, 60(4).



Research Articles