Enhancing Efficiency of Solar Heater Box with Linear Actuator for Maximizing Solarization


  • Agha Mushtaque Ahmed Department of Entomology, Faculty of Crop Protection, Sindh Agriculture University Tando Jam, Sindh, Pakistan
  • Imran Khatri Department of Entomology, Faculty of Crop Protection, Sindh Agriculture University Tando Jam, Sindh, Pakistan
  • Irfan Ahmed Halepoto Department of Electronic Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan
  • Masood Nazir Khoso Department of Mechatronic Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan




Solar Heater Boxes, Chickpea Grains, Temperature, Moisture, Seed Volume


Worldwide, stored grain pests are massively infesting most stored crops and their by-products. The main losses are due to infestation of these pests occurring on various carriers just prior to harvest, during storage or shipping. Methyl bromide and phosphine fumigation have been widely used for phytosanitary treatment of stored grains but are recognized as highly effective in depleting ozone, and similarly, residue-free grains are important for thermal disinfection. Solarization is one of the best ways to manage and disinfect crops, the traditional solarization methods are already practised by farmers but are inefficient to kill all stages of pests and require additional land exposed to the sun. In this work, thermal disinfection systems using solar heaters are proposed, designed, and developed to offset the actual lethal heat window. For the experiment work, the solar heater boxes were constructed in an octagon shape with 135o at the base for trapping maximum heat inside the solar the heater box. The characteristics of the proposed system proved simpler, faster, and inexpensive but equally effective to achieve the desired results in terms of heat generation and seed moisture.


F. Hussain, M. Ahmad, A. Ghafoor, and A. Tanvir. A developmental study of a solar-assisted maize dryer for quality drying, The Journal of Animal Plant Science 30(3): 742–748 (2020).

N. Zhang, Wu, Wenfu. Y. Wang, and S. Li. Hazard Analysis of Traditional Post-Harvest Operation Methods and the Loss Reduction Effect Based on Five Time (5T) Management: The Case of Rice in Jilin Province, China. Agriculture 11(9): 1-21 (2021).

K. Neme, A. Nafady, S. Uddin, and Y.B. Tola. Application of nanotechnology in agriculture, postharvest loss reduction and food processing: Food security implication and challenges. Heliyon 7(12): 1-12 (2021).

O.K. Oni, A.M. Oyinloye, A.B. Adepeju, C.I. Okoro, and F. Idowu-Adebayo. Effect of Drying Methods and Sulphiting on the Physico-Chemical and Microbial Quality of Tomato Powder. FUOYE Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 6(2): 109-117 (2021).

M.A. Lewis, S. Trabelsi, and S.O. Nelson. Development of an eighth-scale grain drying system with real-time microwave monitoring of moisture content. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 35(5): 767-774 (2019).

W.R. Morrison, A. Bruce, R.V. Wilkins, C.E. Albin, and F. H. Arthur. Sanitation improves stored product insect pest management. Insects 10(3): 1-20 (2019).

R.I. Sanchez‐Mariñez, M.O. Cortez‐Rocha, F. Ortega‐Dorame, M. Morales‐Valdes, and M. I. Silveira. End‐use quality of flour from Rhyzoperthadominica infested wheat. Cereal Chemistry 74(4): 481-483 (1997).

L. Sidauruk, E. Panjaitan, P. Sipayung, and P.S. Hutauruk. Botanical pesticides, a potential ethnobotany Karo Regency to support food safety of the horticultural product. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 1005(1): 1-9 (2022).

K.D. Singh, A.J. Mobolade, R. Bharali, D. Sahoo, and Y. Rajashekar. Main plant volatiles as stored grain pest management approach: A review. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research 4(1): 1-12 (2021).

W. Thomas. Methyl bromide: effective pest management tool and environmental threat. Journal of Nematology 28(4S): 586 (1996).

S. Kumar, D. Mohapatra, N. Kotwaliwale, and K.K. Singh. Vacuum hermetic fumigation: A review. Journal of Stored Products Research 71(1): 47-56 (2017).

R. Qaisrani, and J. Banks. The prospects for heat disinfestation of grain. In: Australian Postharvest Technical Conference, Adelaide, Australia. 1-4 August, (2000).

D. Kumar, and P. Kalita. Reducing postharvest losses during storage of grain crops to strengthen food security in developing countries. Foods 6(1): 1-22 (2017).

A.G. Watson, S. Aleckovic, and R. Nallamothu. A novel and improved solar drying system appropriate for smallholder farmers. Drying Technology 40(11): 2274-2282 (2021).

R.B. Pinto, S. Oduro-Kwarteng, J.A. Hamidu, and H.M.K. Essandoh. Sensitivity of nutritional and microbial content of food wastes to drying technologies. Scientific African 16(1): 1-13 (2022).

R.M.E. Elhadaa, R.M. Awang, D. Omar, U.R. Sinniah and I. V. Grozescu. Selection and evaluation of materials for solar heater boxes and their capacity in trapping solar energy. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 10(1): 25-32 (2017).

P.G. Fields. The control of stored-product insects and mites with extreme temperatures. Journal of Stored Products Research 28(2): 89-118 (1992).

C. Mekasha, O. Dzolkifli, S. Yusuf, M. Rita and O. Noorma. Effect of heat treatment on developmental stages of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored adzuki bean Vigna angularis. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 26(4): 273-279 (2006).

G. Abdullahi, R. Muhamad, O. Dzolkhifli, and U.R. Sinniah, Analysis of quality retentions in cocoa beans exposed to solar heat treatment in cardboard solar heater box. Cogent Food & Agriculture 4(1): 1-12 (2018).

G. Abdullahi, R. Muhamad, O. Dzolkhifli, and U.R. Sinniah. Efficiency of cardboard solar heater boxes for disinfestations of stored grains against arthropod pest. Agricultural Science and Technology 11(3): 247–256 (2019).

M.N. Khoso, I.A. Halepoto, and A.M. Agha. Impact Analysis of Solar Heater Box with Linear Actuator on Characteristics of Chickpea Seeds. Journal of Applied Research in Plant Sciences 5(1): 1-11(2024).

P.G. Fields, and N.D. White. Alternatives to methyl bromide treatments for stored product and quarantine insects. Annual Review of Entomology 47: 331–359(2002).

S.J. Beckett, P.G. Fields, and B. Subramanyam. Disinfestation of stored products and associated structures using heat. In: Heat treatments for postharvest pest control: theory and practice. CAB International, Oxon, United Kingdom: pp. 182-237 (2007).

J.D. Hansen, J.A. Johnson, and D.A. Winter. History and use of heat in pest control: a review. International Journal of Pest Management 57(4): 267-289 (2011).

S.J. Beckett. Insect and mite control by manipulating temperature and moisture before and during chemical-free storage. Journal of Stored Products Research 47(4): 284-292 (2011).

R. Mahroof, B. Subramanyam, and D. Eustace. Temperature and relative humidity profiles during heat treatment of mills and its efficacy against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) life stages. Journal of Stored Products Research 39(5): 555-569 (2003).

O. Dosland, B. Subramanyam, K. Sheppard, and R. Mahroof. Temperature modification for insect control. In: Insect management for food storage and processing, 2nd ed. J.W. Heaps (Ed.), Elsevier Publishers, St. Paul. MN, USA, pp. 89-103 (2006).




How to Cite

Agha Mushtaque Ahmed, Imran Khatri, Irfan Ahmed Halepoto, & Masood Nazir Khoso. (2023). Enhancing Efficiency of Solar Heater Box with Linear Actuator for Maximizing Solarization. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: A. Physical and Computational Sciences, 60(4), 45–54. https://doi.org/10.53560/PPASA(60-4)811



Research Articles