Utilization of Chicken Eggshells as Catalyst in Biodiesel Synthesis from Waste Cooking Oil Chicken Eggshells as Catalyst in Biodiesel Synthesis from Waste Cooking Oil

Main Article Content

Lizda Johar Mawarani
Thomas Andherson Sihombing
Doty Dewi Risanti
Muhannad Illayan Massadeh
Dwi Prananto

Abstract

Solid oxides are the most used catalyst for the synthesis of biodiesel, one of which is calcium oxide (CaO). This research reports the synthesis of CaO catalysts sourced from chicken eggshells through the calcination process. Chicken eggshells were cleaned and dried for 24 h at 120 oC. The eggshells were then calcined at temperatures varying from 600 oC to 900 oC for 6 h and the resulted sample were characterized by FTIR and XRD. The biodiesel synthesis was conducted at 65 ºC with a reaction time of 2 h and the concentration of catalyst was varied at 3 wt%, 6 wt%, and 9 wt%. The optimal biodiesel synthesis was obtained at a concentration of CaO catalyst formed at a calcination temperature of 900 ºC at 9 wt%. The yield of biodiesel conversion was obtained at 81.43 % and glycerol was produced as a by-product.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mawarani, L. J. ., Sihombing, T. A. ., Risanti, D. D. ., Massadeh, M. I. ., & Prananto, D. . (2021). Utilization of Chicken Eggshells as Catalyst in Biodiesel Synthesis from Waste Cooking Oil: Chicken Eggshells as Catalyst in Biodiesel Synthesis from Waste Cooking Oil. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: A. Physical and Computational Sciences, 58(S), 85–95. https://doi.org/10.53560/PPASA(58-sp1)737
Section
Articles

References

F. Ullah., A. Nosheen., I. Hussain., and A. Bano. Base catalyzed transesterification of wild apricot kernel oil for biodiesel production. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(4): 3289–3293 (2009)

A.H.K. Khichi. Bioethanol and biodiesel from second generation feedstocks: A promising solution to energy shortages in Pakistan. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences B. Life and Environmental Sciences 54 (2): 79–88 (2017).

H.H. Senousy., and S.A. Ellatif. Mixotrophic cultivation of Coccomyxa subellipsoidea microalga on industrial dairy wastewater as an innovative method for biodiesel lipids production. Jordan Journal Biology Sciences 13(1): 47–54 (2020).

E.I. Rhofita. Penurunan kadar Free Fatty Acid (FFA) pada reaksi esterifikasi dalam proses produksi biodiesel: Kajian waktu reaksi dan temperatur reaksi. [Decreasing levels of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) in the esterification reaction in the biodiesel production process: Study of reaction time and reaction temperature]. Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Teknik Sistem 11: 39–44 (2015). [in Bahasa Indonesia].

B. Supple., R. Howard-Hildige., E. Gonzalez- Gomez, and J. Leahy. The effect of steam treating waste cooking oil on the yield of methyl ester. Journal of the American Oil Chemists 79: 175–178 (2002). DOI: 10.1007/s11746-002-0454-1

M. Canakci. The potential of restaurant waste lipids as biodiesel feedstocks. Bioresource Technology 98: 183–190 (2007). DOI: j.biortech.2005.11.022

Z. Wei., C. Xu, and B. Li. Application of waste eggshell as low-cost solid catalyst for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology 100(11): 2883– 2885 (2009). DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2008.12.039.

W. Stadelman. Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology, 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA. p. 593–599 (2005)

H. Santoso., I. Kristianto, and A. Setyadi. Pembuatan biodiesel menggunakan katalis basa heterogen berbahan dasar kulit telur. [The making biodiesel using heterogeneous base catalysts from eggshell]. Research Report Engineering Science - LPPM Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Bandung, Indonesia (2013). [in Bahasa Indonesia].

J.D. Martín-Ramosm, and J. Díaz-Hernández. Pathways for Quantitative Analysis by X-Ray Diffraction. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (IACT, CSIC-UGR), Spain (2011). DOI: 10.5772/36256

S. Rahmawati., R. Ediati, and D. Prasetyoko. Sintesis partikel nano CaO dengan metode kopresipitasi dan karakterisasinya [Synthesis of nano CaO particles by coprecipitation method and their characterization]. University Scientific Paper, ITS, Surabaya, Indonesia (2012). [in Bahasa Indonesia].

S. Martinez., L. Romero., R. Lopez, and J. Romero. Preparation and Characterization of CaO nanoparticles/NaX zeolite catalysts for the transesterification of sunflower oil. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 50(5): 2665–2670 (2010). DOI: 10.1021/ie1006867

B. Yoosuk., P. Udomsap., B. Puttasawat, and P. Krasae. Modification of calcite by hydration– dehydration method for heterogeneous biodiesel production process: The effects of water on properties and activity. Chemical Engineering Journal 162(1): 135–141 (2010). DOI: 10.1016/j. cej.2010.05.013

N. Tangboriboon., R. Kunanuruksapong, and A. Sirivat. Preparation and properties of calcium oxide from eggshells via calcination. Materials Science- Poland 30(4): 313–322 (2012). DOI: 10.2478/ s13536-012-0055-7

J.A. Kinast. Production of biodiesels from multiple feedstocks and properties of biodiesels and biodiesel/ diesel blends: Final report. Report 1 in a Series of 6 (No. NREL/SR-510-31460). National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO., USA. (2003).

Muhammad, R. D., Umar, A., Budiawan, B., Bakri, R., and Sihombing, R. Utilization of duck eggshell and chicken eggshell as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from waste cooking oil. AIP Conference Proceedings 2168 (020071):1–8 (2019). DOI: 10.1063/1.5132498.

H. Yasin., R. Mamat., A.F. Yusop., R. Rahim, and A. Aziz. Fuel Physical characteristics of biodiesel blend fuels with alcohol as additives. Procedia Engineering 53: 701–706 (2013). DOI: 10.1016/j. proeng.2013.02.091