Systematic Augmentation of Artoolkit Markers for Indoor Navigation and Guidance

Systematic Augmentation of ARToolkit Markers for Indoor Navigation and Guidance


  • Sehat Ullah Department of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Malakand, Dir (L), Pakistan.
  • Inam ur Rahman Department of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Malakand, Dir (L), Pakistan.
  • Sami ur Rahman Department of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Malakand, Dir (L), Pakistan


Augmented Reality, Indoor Navigation, Fiducial Marker


Augmented Reality (AR) has been deployed in various fields like engineering, medical, gaming, and academic. It has also been utilized for user navigation in large indoor environments. In this study, we present a path generation algorithm that automatically identifies fiducial markers in the building to create a path for user navigation. Path augmentation algorithm adds auditory and textual information to the generated path for user assistance. We implement the algorithms in an android application and its internal mechanism for database creation and guidance system is discussed.


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How to Cite

Ullah, S. ., Rahman, I. ur ., & Rahman, S. ur. (2021). Systematic Augmentation of Artoolkit Markers for Indoor Navigation and Guidance: Systematic Augmentation of ARToolkit Markers for Indoor Navigation and Guidance. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: A. Physical and Computational Sciences, 56(1), 1–8. Retrieved from