Latent Factors of Sustainable Tourism Practices and Green Hospitality Measures in Gilgit Baltistan, North Pakistan


  • Muhammad Qasim Department of Geography and Geomatics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Atta-ur-Rahman Department of Geography and Geomatics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Takaaki Nihei Urban Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan
  • Zaheer Ahmed Urban Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan



Factor Analysis, Green Management, Hospitality Units, Quantitative Data, Rotated Matrix


The tourism activities and hospitality services are part and parcel to each other; therefore, adaptation of green management within hospitality services is inevitable for development of tourism in sustainable way. The current study therefore determines the factors responsible for development of tourism in sustainable way and green management within hospitality entities throughout Gilgit Baltistan (GB) region. Quantitative data through a structured set of questionnaires is acquired from the registered hospitality units of the study area including hotels and guest houses. Yamane’s formula is used to specify the sample size from the targeted population. Following the result of applied formula, 177 hospitality managers out of 499 total registered hospitality units are approached from all the three divisions of Gilgit Baltistan. To determine the latent factors, factor analysis is applied on the data through statistical software. To ensure the appropriateness of the statistical analysis, Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett’s test is applied initially. KMO sampling adequacy of 0.626 and Bartlett’s test of sphericity with most significant value of (p < 0.001) endorsed the appropriateness of the proposed analysis. Rotated Components Matrix through Kaiser Normalization concluded seven latent factors with different components of variances including six factors related to hospitality management services. Hence, green management in hospitality is necessary for sustainability in tourism.


M. Carrillo, and J.M. Jorge. Multidimensional Analysis of Regional Tourism Sustainability in Spain. Ecological Economics 140: 89-98 (2017).

R. Sharpley. Tourism and Sustainable Development: Exploring the Theoretical Divide. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 8(1): 1-19 (2000).

R. Sharpley. Rural tourism and sustainability – A Critique. In: New directions in rural tourism, D. Hall, L. Roberts, and M. Mitchell (Eds.). Ashgate Publishing Limited, Aldershot, UK (2003).

G. Helgadóttir, A.V. Einarsdóttir, G.L. Burns, G.O. Gunnarsdóttir, and J.M.E. Matthíasdóttir. Social sustainability of tourism in Iceland: A qualitative inquiry. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 19(4-5): 404-421 (2019).

A.I.P. Nugraheni, T.K. Priyambodoac, B. Sutiknoa, and H.A. Kusworoa. Defining Social Sustainability and Socially Conscious Tourist in Sustainable Tourism Development. Journal of Business on Hospitality and Tourism 5(2): 264-276 (2019).

J. Cukier, and H.D. Haas. Small Scale Tourism and Sustainability in Niue. Pacific Tourism Review 4(1): 1-6 (2000).

D.F.V. Uzun, and M. Somuncu. Evaluation of the Sustainability of Tourism in Ihlara Valley and Suggestions European Journal of Sustainable Development 4(2): 165-174 (2015).

R.W. Butler. Tourism and the environment: A geographical perspective. Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment 2(3): 337–358 (2000).

P. Peeters, and G. Dubois. Tourism travel under climate change mitigation constraints. Journal of Transport Geography 18(3): 447-457 (2010).

C.H. Lui, G.H. Tzeng, M.H. Lee, and P.Y. Lee. Improving metro–airport connection service for tourism development: Using hybrid MCDM models. Tourism Management Perspectives 6: 95-107 (2013).

Y. Jabareen. A New Conceptual Framework for Sustainable Development. Environment Development and Sustainability 10(2): 179-192 (2008).

T. Tiwari, and A. Abrol. A Research Paper on Eco-Tourism-its sustainability in India. International Research Journal of Commerce, Arts and Science 6(9): 22-29 (2015).

A.N. Candrea, and A. Hertanu. Developing ecotourism destinations in Romania. A case study approach. Economic Sciences 8(2): 163-174 (2015).

O. Filiposki, M. Ackovska, N.P. Angelovska, and D. Mtodijeski. Socio economic impacts of tourism. Economic Development 18(1-2): 125-155 (2016).

D.A. Fennell (Ed.). Ecotourism, 5th Edition. Taylor and Francis, Routledge (2003).

N.D. Sausmarez. Crisis Management, Tourism and Sustainability: The Role of Indicators. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 15(6): 700–714 (2007).

A.C. Hunt. “We Are Even Poorer, but there is more work” An Ethnographic Analysis of Ecotourism in Nicaragua. Ph.D. Thesis, Texas A & M University, USA (2009).

K. Peattie, and A. Crane. Green marketing: legend, myth, farce or prophesy. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal 8(4): 357-370 (2005).

J. Grant. Green Marketing. Strategic Direction 24(6): 25-27 (2008).

J. Pickett-Baker, and R. Ozaki. Pro environmental products: marketing influence on consumer purchase decision. Journal of Consumer Marketing 25: 281-293 (2008).

X. Font, and R. Buckley (Eds.). Tourism ecolabelling: certification and promotion of sustainable management. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, United Kingdom (2001).

X. Font. Environmental Certification in Tourism and Hospitality: Progress, Process and Prospects. Tourism Management 23(3): 197-205 (2002).

E.S.W. Chan, and S. Wong. Motivations for ISO 14001 in the Hotel Industry. Tourism Management 27(3): 481-492 (2006).

E. Cavagnaro, and S.A. Gehrels. Sweet and Sour Grapes: Implementing Sustainability in the Hospitality Industry-A Case Study. Journal of Culinary Science & Technology 7(2): 181-195 (2009).

M.S. Moise, I. Gil-Saura, and M.E.R. Molina. The importance of green practices for hotel guests: Does gender matter? Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja 34(1): 3508-3529 (2021).

A. Kasim. A Look at Tourists’ Propensity Towards Environmentally and Socially Friendly Hotel

Attributes in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration 5(2): 61-83 (2004).

C.N. Chiu. Tourism expansion and economic development: Evidence from the United States and China. Journal of China Tourism Research 17(1): 120-111 (2021).

S. Ayuso. Comparing voluntary policy instruments for sustainable tourism: The experience of the Spanish hotel sector. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 15(2): 144-159 (2007).

J. Dawson, E.J. Stewart, H. Lemelinc, and D. Scott. The carbon cost of polar bear viewing tourism in Churchill, Canada. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18: 319-336 (2010).

M. Qasim, and A. Rahman. Trends and Patterns of Temporal Tourism Growth in Gilgit Baltistan Region, Pakistan. Journal of Development and Social Sciences 3(3): 524-537 (2022).

M. Qasim, A. Rahman, and Z. Ahmed. Adventure Tourism in Gilgit Baltistan: Opportunities, Trends and Destinations. Annals of Human and Social Sciences 3(2): 44-54(2022).

M. Forina, C. Armanino, S. Lanteri, and R. Leardi. Methods of Varimax rotation in factor analysis with applications in clinical and food chemistry. Journal of Chemometrics 3(S1): 115-125 (2005).

R.R. Croes. A paradigm shift to a new strategy for small island economies: Embracing demand side economics for value enhancement and long term economic stability. Tourism Management 27(3): 453–465 (2006).

K. Dube, and G. Nhamo. Vulnerability of nature-based tourism to climate variability and change: Case of Kariba resort town, Zimbabwe. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism 29(1): 100281 (2020).

R. Durbarry. The economic contribution of tourism in Mauritiu. Annals of Tourism Research 29(3): 862-865 (2002).

R.G. Dyson. Strategic development and SWOT analysis at the University of Warwick. European

Journal of Operational Research 152(3): 631-640 (2004).

N. Faber, R. Jorna, and J.M.L. Engel. The sustainability of ‘sustainability’ - A study into the conceptual foundations of the notion of ‘sustainability’. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management 7(1): 1-33 (2005).

B.H. Farrel, and L. Twinning-Ward. Re conceptualization Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 31(2): 274-295 (2004).

J. Zoltan, and B. McKercher. Analyzing intra-destination movements and activity participation of tourists through destination card consumption. Tourism Geographies 17(1): 19-35 (2015).




How to Cite

Muhammad Qasim, Atta-ur-Rahman, Takaaki Nihei, & Zaheer Ahmed. (2024). Latent Factors of Sustainable Tourism Practices and Green Hospitality Measures in Gilgit Baltistan, North Pakistan. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: A. Physical and Computational Sciences, 61(1), 1–10.



Research Articles