Synergistic Effect of Yemeni Sesame Oil and Squalene on Hyperlipidemia-induced Reproductive Damage in Male Rats

Synergistic effect of Yemeni sesame oil and squalene in male rats


  • Mohammed Sadeg A. Al-Awar Amran University
  • Amani Hamood A. Serag Shaoxing University image/svg+xml
  • Marzoq Ali Odhah Department of Respiratory Care
  • Nabil Ahmed Albaser Al-Razi University



sesame oil, squalene, Ameliorating effect, hyperlipidemia model, sexual dysfunction rats


This study was purposed to explore the synergistic amelioration effect and optimal feeding time of sesame oil and squalene on hyperlipemia-induced sexual dysfunction rats. We established the hyperlipidemia-induced reproductive damage model, the three groups of test substances (sesame oil, a mixture of sesame oil and squalene, and sildenafil) were orally administrated to those hyperlipidemic rats on day 30 and day 60. The results showed that compared with the pure sesame oil, the mixture of sesame oil and squalene can synergistically decrease concentration levels of TG, TC, and LDL-C, significantly increasing the serum testosterone level and sperm count of the epididymal tail, which the 30 days’ effect was better than the day 60. Compared with the model control (MC) group, the Organ Coefficient of penile increased significantly in the sesame oil (SO), sesame oil+ Squalene (SOS), and Sildenafil (SN) group, and no pathological changes were found in the penile and testis in above three groups at the day 30 and the day 60. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated that sesame oil and squalene have a synergistic amelioration effect on lowering blood lipid and promoting the recovery of erectile and sexual function on hyperlipemia-induced reproductive damage rats at day 30. However, further studies should be carried out to deeply elucidate the molecular mechanisms of Sesame oil and squalene in lowering blood lipids and improving sexual function in vivo.

Author Biographies

Mohammed Sadeg A. Al-Awar, Amran University

Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Amran University, Amran, Yemen;



Amani Hamood A. Serag, Shaoxing University

Department of Biology, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing city, zhijiang Provence, China




Marzoq Ali Odhah, Department of Respiratory Care

Department of Respiratory Care, Collage of Medicine and Health Science, Al-Razi University, Sana’a, Yemen



Nabil Ahmed Albaser, Al-Razi University

Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Science, Al-Razi University, Sana’a, Yemen.




S.Medina, andJ.C. Rodríguez. A review of the pathophysiological factors involved in urological disease associated with metabolic syndrome.Actas Urológicas Espaolas 40: 279-287(2016).

J.S. Wang, H.H. Dai, Y.B.Yan, X.H.Gong, X. Li, andH.S.Li. Research of stroke combined hyperlipidemia-induced erectile dysfunction in the rat model.Aging Male 22: 278-286(2019).

Z.W.Pei, Y. Guo, H.L. Zhu, M. Dong, Q. Zhang, andF. Wang. Thymoquinone Protects against Hyperlipidemia-Induced Cardiac Damage in LowDensity Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient (LDL-R-/-) Mice via Its Anti-inflammatory and Antipyroptotic Effects. Hindawi BioMed Research International 1-9(2020).

M.L. Schulster, S.E. Liang, and B.B. Najari. Metabolic syndrome and sexual dysfunction. Current Opinion in Urology, 27 435-440 (2017).

V. Uppin, P. Acharya, B.B.Kempaiah, and R.R. Talahalli. Zerumbone augments cognitive enhancement potentials of EPA+DHA: insight from a hyperlipidaemic rat model. British Journal of Nutrition, 124: 1353-1360(2020).

T.W. Jung, J. Park, J.L. Sun, S.H. Ahn, A.M.A. ELAty, A. Hacimuftuoglu, H.K. Kim, J.H. Shim, S.S. Shin, andJ.H. Jeong. Administration of kynurenic acid reduces hyperlipidemia-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and adipocytes. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 518: 110928 (2020).

H.G. Jing, K.K. Szpunar, andD.L. Schacter. Interpolated testing influences focused attention and improves integration of information during a video-recorded lecture. Journal of Experimental Psychology Applied 22(3): 305 (2016).‏

Y.J. Dong, C. Zheng, Y.E. Li, C.M. Zhang, S.L. Shen, andJ.H. Liang. Effects of serum total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels on erectile function in hyperlipidaemia rats. Journal of Guangxi Medical University34: 1699-1702(2017).

N.P. Masuku, J.O. Unuofin, and S.L. Lebelo. Promising role of medicinal plants in the regulation and management of male erectile dysfunction. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy130: 110555 (2020).

R.C.A. Guimarães, M.L.R.Macedo, C.L.Munhoz, , W. Filiu, L. Viana, V.T. Hand Nozaki. Sesame and flaxseed oil: nutritional quality and effects on serum lipids and glucose in rats. Food Science and Technology (Campinas) 33(1): 209-217 (2013).

S.S.A. Ali, and M.S.A. Al-Janabi. Comparative Study on Therapeutic Effect of Wheat Germ Oil and Sesame Oil with Some Lipid-lowering Drugs in Local Male Rabbits with Hyperlipidemia, induced by Triton x-100: Physiological and Histological Study. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance12(2): 76-83(2021).

E. Hsu, andS. Parthasarathy. Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Sesame Oil on Atherosclerosis: A Descriptive Literature Review.Cureus 9(7): e1438 (2017).

P. Jayaraj, C.A.Narasimhulu, S. Sanjay Rajagopalan, S. Parthasarathy, and R.DesikanSesamol: a powerful functional food ingredient from sesame oil for cardioprotection. Journal Food and Function. 11: 1198-1210. (2020).

A. GowederFawzia, T.M. Abu El-Nasr and A.A. ElSayed. The effect of sesame intake on adult albino rat testis during sildenafil long-term administration. Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology82(2): 2-7 (2021).

D. Hota, A. Srinivasan, J.P. Sahoo, K.K. Behera, B.K. Patro, and D. BandyopadhyayPossible Anti-Diabetic and Anti-HyperlipidemicEfficacy of Blended Rice Bran Oil with Sesame Oil in Comparison with Soybean Oil: A Clinical Investigation in

Pre-Diabetic and Diabetic Individuals. Journal of Clinical Trials 10: 419 (2020).

T.T. Shen, and S.X. Wu. Effects of Tea Seed Oil on Hyperlipidemic Rats Induced by High-fat Diet. Food Science and Technology 23: 101-109 (2017).

M.N. Woo, S.H. Bok, and M.S. Choi. Hypolipidemic and body fat lowering effects of Fat clean in rats fed a high-fat diet. Food and Chemical Toxicology 47: 2076-2082(2009).

Y.S. Kwak, J.S. Kyung, J.S. Kim, J.Y. Cho, and M.H. Rhee. Antihyperlipidemic effects of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide from Koreanred ginseng. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 33: 468-472 (2010).

Y.H. Zhang, Y. Li, D. Cao, T. Yu, J.Y. Gao, and C.Y. Pan. Research progress on the effects of testosterone on animal reproduction and growth and development. Journal of Animal Ecology 39: 1-7(2018).

S. Li, Y. Liu, and C.L. Wang. The health benefits 50 Al-Awar et al and application of Squalene. Food Research and Development. 14: 206-209 (2016).

C. Y. Liu, M.H. Ma, G.F. Zhan, F.Geng, Q.L. Wang, and S.G. Sun. Research process on squalence and bioactivities. Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology 15: 147-156 (2015).

R. Li, K. Cui, T. Wang, S. Wang, X. Li, J.Qiu, G. Yu, J. Liu, B. Wen, and K. Rao. Hyperlipidemia impairs erectile function in rats by causing cavernosal fibrosis. Andrologia 49: 12693 (2017).

J.L. Hu, H.X. Chen, H.R. Chen, Y. Wu, X.W.Sun, Z. Li, and J.F. Xing. Novel noninvasive quantification of penile corpus cavernosum lesions in hyperlipidemiainduced erectile dysfunction in rabbits by twodimensional shear-wave elastography. Asian Journal

of Andrology 21: 143-149 (2019).

L.L. Xia, X.J. Wang, T.Y. Xu, L. Qin, X. Zhang, Z.W. Zhu, X.H. Zhang, S. Zhong, M.G. Zhang, and Z.J. Shen.) Androgen combined with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in diabetic rats. Journal of Modern Urology 5: 347-352 (2019).




How to Cite

A. Al-Awar, M. S., Amani Hamood A. Serag, Odhah, M. A., & Albaser, N. A. (2022). Synergistic Effect of Yemeni Sesame Oil and Squalene on Hyperlipidemia-induced Reproductive Damage in Male Rats: Synergistic effect of Yemeni sesame oil and squalene in male rats. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: B. Life and Environmental Sciences, 59(4), 43–51.



Research Articles