Assessment of Karachi as an Urban Heat Island Threat through Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques
Keywords:Build-up areas, land use/land cover, emissivity, satellite monitoring, temperature increase, NDVI
The present study aimed to assess the threat of transformation of Karachi into an Urban Heat Island, so, ambit was having calculated temperature, buildup areas, and normalized difference vegetation index through remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Landsat satellite data was used to differentiate the temperature in different years. These images were processed through Envi 4.7, Erdas Imagine, and ArcGIS 10.3.1. The results revealed that the maximum temperature was found up to 30.52, 35.25, 33.60, 46.73 °C; the buildup area was 23, 34, 26, 45 %; the NDVI results showed ranging from 0.224-1, 0.07-0.43, 0.201-1, 0.29-0.7 during this years. The average spatial land use temperature and buildup area increased by 1.03 and 1.9 times from 1990 to 2019. The maximum NDVI was observed during 2019, because of heavy rainfall as a result which supports promoting more greenery. With an increase in the buildup area, a significant change in the temperature of the territory was simultaneously observed. Therefore, this indicates a major task for urban developers extenuating the subsequent urban heat island occurrence. That is, for the first time it is scientifically substantiated and confirmed by the results that when creating a city development plan, it is extremely important to exclude the possibility of the urban heat island occurrence through preliminary studies. The practical value of the study lies in sound recommendations, one of which is the need for future urban development to emphasize urban plantings, including vertical forests to prevent UHI occurrence in the area of Karachi city.
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