Surveillance of Berberis Species across Poonch Division of Azad Jammu and Kashmir

Diversity of Berberis Species


  • Rizwan Azim Department of Plant Breeding and Molecular Genetics, University of Poonch, Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
  • Shahid Iqbal Awan Department of Plant Breeding and Molecular Genetics, University of Poonch, Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
  • Muhammad Ilyas Department of Plant Breeding and Molecular Genetics, University of Poonch, Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
  • Arifa Khan International Islamic University, Islamabad



Abundance, Berberis, Diversity Studies, Shannon Index, Simpson Index


Berberis is one of the most important medicinal plant and it has a great medicinal value. Berberis has such pronounced medicinal values that it is used to cure many diseases and has exhibited great therapeutic effects among the local communities throughout the world. Diversity of Berberis is uncertain to great extent in Poonch division of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Berberis specimens were collected from four districts comprising fifteen tehsils of Poonch division of Azad Kashmir. About 40 prominent locations were visited during flowering and fruiting stages during 2016-17. A total of seven species and a sub species were identified on the basis of morphological studies. Studies showed that identified Berberis species were present in all the four districts. Shanon and Simpson indices were used for calculating diversity of Berberis species in the study area along with calculating species evenness and equitability. Diversity indices indicated that there was moderate diversity of Berberis species within different districts and different tehsils. Simpson diversity index indicated that there is an 87 % chance that two individuals selected randomly from the
study area would be different. Species evenness indicated that each specie identified from each tehsil had maximum chance of occurrence and each identified species is present in every tehsil. Species equability also indicated similar kinds of results which indicated that different species were evenly distributed in each tehsil. It was concluded that there is moderate diversity of Berberis species in Poonch division of Azad Jammu and kashmir. All the identified species were present in all the districts. The present study will advance our knowledge regarding identification and distribution of Berberis species in Poonch division.


S. Heidary, H. Marashi, M. Farsi, and A.M. Kakhki. Assessment of genetic structure and variation of native Berberis populations of Khorasan provinces (Iran) using AFLP markers versus morphological markers. Iranian Journal of Biotechnology 7(2): 101-107 (2009).

M.C.J. Bottini, E.J. Greizerstein, M.B. Aulicino, and L. Poggio. Relationships among genome size, environmental conditions and geographical distribution in natural populations of NW Patagonian species of Berberis L. (Berberidaceae). Annals of Botany 86(5): 565-573 (2000).

L.R. Landrum. Berberidaceae. In: University de Concepción. C. Marticorena, & R. Rodrìguez (Ed.), Flora de Chile, Concepción, p. 1-23 (2003).

I. Khan, S. Najeebullah, M. Ali, and Z. Shinwari. Phytopharmacological and ethnomedicinal uses of the Genus Berberis (Berberidaceae): A review. Tropical Journal Pharmacology Research 15(9): 2047-2057 (2016).

N. Nazir, A. Rahman, F. Uddin, K.A.A. Khan, M. Zahoor, M. Nisar, S. Ullah, R. Ullah, E. Ezzeldin, and G.A.E. Mostafa. Quantitative ethnomedicinal status and phytochemical analysis of Berberis lyceum royle. Agronomy 11(1): 130-136 (2021).

Z. Hubálek. Measures of species diversity in ecology: An evaluation. Folia Zoology 49(4): 241-260 (2000).

R.M. May. Conceptual aspects of the quantification of the extent of biological diversity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 345(1311): 13-20 (1994).

R. Margalef. Information Theory in Ecology. General Systems 3: 36-71 (1958).

R.K. Peet. The measurement of species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 5: 285-307 (1974).

R.H. Whittaker. Communities and Ecosystems. Macmillan, New York (1975).

E.C. Pielou. An Introduction to Mathematical Ecology. Wiley New York (1969).

T. Khan. Estimation of genetic diversity among Berberis spp. from Karakoram Mountain Ranges using morpho-pathological and floral characters. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 5(2): 286-295 (2014).

M. Chapman. Carpel anatomy of the Berberidaceae. American Journal of Botany 23(5): 340-348 (1936).

R.R. Rao, T. Hussain, B. Datt, and A. Garg. Revision of the Family Berberididaceae of India. Rheedea 8(5): 1-66 (1998).

S.M.H. Jafri. Berberidaceae. In: Flora of Pakistan No. 87. E. Nasir, and S. I. Ali (Eds.). Department of Botany University of Karachi pp. 1-40 (1975).

C. Lucas, T. Thangaradjou, and J. Papenbrock. Development of a DNA barcoding system for sea grasses: successful but not simple. Plos One 7(1) e29987 (2012). (accessed 21 December 2021).

F.R. Fosberg, and M.H. Sachet. Manual of Tropical Herbaria (Regnum vegetabile 39). International Bureau for Plant Taxonomy and Nomenclature. Utrecht, Netherlands pp. 132 (1965).

T.B. Croat. Collecting and preparing specimens of Araceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 78 Azim et al 72(2): 252-258 (1985).

D. Bridson, and L. Forman. The herbarium handbook. 3rd edn. Royal Botanic Gardens pp. 346 (2004).

E.H. Simpson. Measurement of diversity. Nature 163, 688 (1949).

K.O. Bowman, K. Hutcheson, E.P. Odum, and L.R. Shenton. Comments on the distribution of indices of diversity. In: Patel, G. P., E. C. Pielou, W. C. Water, Statistical Ecology, Pennsylvania State University Park PA pp. 315-366 (1971).

Alatolo. Problems in Measurement of Ecology. Oikos 37(7): 199-205 (1981).

R.H. McArthur. Patterns of species diversity. Biological Review 40(9): 510-533 (1965).

J.S. Gray. Why do ecological monitoring? Marine Pollution Bulletin 11, 62-66 (1980).

K. Hutcheson. A Test for Comparing Diversities Based on the Shannon Formula. Theoretical Biology 29(1): 151-154 (1970).

S.N. Ram, and K. Sunil. Productivity, quality, economics and nutrients uptake by natural pasture as influenced by introduction of Stylosanthes species, phosphorus and potash levels under annona (Annona squamosa) trees. Indian Journal of Agriculture Science 6(8): 517-521 (2010).

R. Qureshi, G.R. Bhatti, and R.A. Memon. Ethnomedicinal uses of herbs from Nara Desert, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42(11): 839-851 (2010).

K.S. Ahmad, R. Qureshi, M. Hameed, F. Ahmad, and T. Nawaz. Conservation assessment and medicinal importance of some plants resources from Sharda, Neelum valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. International Journal of Agriculture Biology 14(7): 997-1000 (2012).

D. Tilman. The ecological consequences of changes in biodiversity: A search for general principles. Journal of Ecology 80(15): 1455-1474 (1999).




How to Cite

Rizwan Azim, Shahid Iqbal Awan, Muhammad Ilyas, & Arifa Khan. (2022). Surveillance of Berberis Species across Poonch Division of Azad Jammu and Kashmir: Diversity of Berberis Species. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: B. Life and Environmental Sciences, 59(4), 71–79.