Economical Synthesis of Nitrophenols under Controlled Physical Parameters

Economical Synthesis of Nitrophenols under Controlled Physical Parameters


  • Shabbir Hussain Institute of Chemistry, Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Ameen Ahmad Department of Chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, DHA Phase VI, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Ahmad Department of Chemistry, DSNT, University of Education Lahore, Pakistan
  • Asma Nisar Faculty of Engineering
  • Amina Asghar Department of Chemistry, DSNT, University of Education Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Suleman Department of Chemistry, Riphah International University, Faisalabad Campus, Pakistan.
  • Samra Barkaat Department of Chemistry, Riphah International University, Faisalabad Campus, Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Riaz Department of Basic and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Nasir Department of Chemistry, GC University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan



Phenol, Nitration, Nitrophenols, o/p-selectivity, Yield, Economical


Current studies were performed to find an economical path for the synthesis of nitrophenols which are plant growth regulators (PGR) and are applied to crops for better agricultural production. The study discourages the involvement of costly surfactants such as CTAB, TBAB, H-β and γ-alumina catalysts in commercial production of nitrophenols. This synthesis requires the lower number of chemicals, less time and does not involve the advance instruments. Phenol and its derivatives were selectively nitrated into o/p nitrophenols economically by controlling only the physical parameters, i.e., dilution of nitric acid, reaction time and reaction temperature. The synthesised products were characterised by RP-HPLC and gas chromatography. The reaction between 98% phenol and 32.5% nitric acid at a temperature of 20°C (±2°C) required only 1 hour for optimum yield (91%) of nitrophenols with 77% ortho and 14% para selectivity and was found to have the most suitable route for economical production. The investigated synthetic path is relatively clean and environmentally friendly as it does not involve catalysts and solvents, like the conventional processes. This process may be adopted for commercialisation and industrial level production of nitrophenols for agricultural purposes.


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How to Cite

Hussain, S. ., Ahmad, M. A. ., Ahmad, M. ., Nisar, A. ., Asghar, A. . ., Suleman, M. ., Barkaat, S. ., Riaz, M. ., & Nasir, M. . (2022). Economical Synthesis of Nitrophenols under Controlled Physical Parameters: Economical Synthesis of Nitrophenols under Controlled Physical Parameters. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: A. Physical and Computational Sciences, 59(2), 31–42.