Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences is official journal of the Academy, published quarterly, in English. This open access journal publishes research papers in Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, and Health Sciences. State-of-the-art reviews (~20 pages, supported by recent references) summarizing R&D in a particular area of science, especially in the context of Pakistan, and suggesting further R&D are also considered. Manuscripts undergo double-blind review. Authors are not required to be Fellows or Members of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences or citizens of Pakistan.